Effect of ampicillin and chloramphenicol alone and in combination on ampicillin susceptible ampicillin and resistant haemophilus influenzae type b

Cole, F.S.; Daum, R.S.; Teller, L.; Goldmann, D.A.; Smith, A.L.

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 15(3): 415-419

1979


ISSN/ISBN: 0066-4804
Accession: 005219835

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Abstract
To evaluate ampicillin (Amp) and chloramphenicol (Cm) alone and in combination against H. influenzae type b, the viability of 5 log10 colony-forming units (CFU) of early-log-phase organisms/ml after 4 and 8 h of incubation with the drug(s) was evaluated. Nine Amp-susceptible (Amps) and 5 Amp-resistant (Ampr) systemic isolates were examined. Antibiotic concentrations included: the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Amp, 50% of the MIC of AMP, 25% of the MIC of Amp, the MIC of Cm, 50% of the MIC of Cm, 25% of the MIC of Cm and 9 combinations of these concentrations. Amp and Cm at their MIC significantly reduced bacterial titers of Amps H. influenzae type b after 8 h of incubation (1.36 and 1.47 log10 CFU/ml, respectively; both P < 0.01); only Cm at its MIC significantly reduced the number of viable organisms after 4 h (0.91 log10 CFU/ml; P < 0.001). With Ampr organisms, significant reductions in mean bacterial titers occurred after 4 and 8 h of incubation in the presence of Amp at its MIC (1.66 and 2.06 log10 CFU/ml, respectively; both P < 0.02); smaller but significant reductions were noted after 4 and 8 with Cm at its MIC (0.56 and 0.87 log20 CFU/ml, respectively; both P < 0.025). Antagonism with Amps or Ampr strains was not seen. Combinations of Amp and Cm have indifferent effects on Amps and Ampr H. influenzae type b.