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Effects of different dietary intake of essential fatty acids on dihomo gamma linolenic acid and arachidonic acid serum levels in human adults



Effects of different dietary intake of essential fatty acids on dihomo gamma linolenic acid and arachidonic acid serum levels in human adults



Lipids 20(4): 227-233



Four diets which differed in fatty acid composition were provided for 5 mo. each to a group of 24 healthy nun volunteers. The diets contained 54% carbohydrates, 16% proteins and 30% lipids. One-third of the lipid part remained unchanged during the whole study, and two-thirds were modified during each period. For this latter portion, one of the following dietary fats was used: sunflower oil, peanut oil, low erucic acid rapeseed (LEAR) oil or milk fats. This procedure allowed an evaluation of the effects of various amounts of dietary linoleic acid (C18:2.omega.6) and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3.omega.3) on the serum level of their metabolites. A diet providing a large amount of linoleic acid (14% of the total caloric intake) resulted in low levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (C20:3.omega.6) and arachidonic acid (C20:4.omega.6) in serum phospholipids and cholesteryl esters. A diet providing a small amount of linoleic (0.6%-1.3% of the total caloric intake) induced high levels of .omega.6 fatty acid derivatives. Intermediate serum levels of C20:3.omega.6 and C20:4.omega.6 were found with a linoleic acid supply of about 6.5% of the total caloric intake. Serum levels of .omega.6 metabolites were not different after 2 diets providing a similar supply of C18:3.omega.3 (4.5% to 6.5% of the total caloric intake), although in one of them the supply of C18:3.omega.3 was higher (1.5% for LEAR oil vs. 0.13% for peanut oil). These experimental conditions (healthy human adults fed on a normo-caloric diet with 30% lipids), were used to determine PUFA (linoleic and linolenic acid) allowances which should be recommended for adults. The aim of the study was to obtain a hypocholesterolemic or normocholestrolemic effect while keeping normal 20:3.omega.6 and 20:4] 6 serum levels which would evidence a normal linoleic acid metabolism. The amounts recommended are: linoleic acid 5-6% of the total calories; alpha-linolenic acid 0.5-1% of the total calories.

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Accession: 005300031

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