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Effects of low temperatures plus 6 celsius and plus 2 celsius on the fine structure of mitochondria and chloroplasts in ephedra vulgaris tissues cultivated in vitro



Effects of low temperatures plus 6 celsius and plus 2 celsius on the fine structure of mitochondria and chloroplasts in ephedra vulgaris tissues cultivated in vitro



Annales des Sciences Naturelles Botanique et Biologie Vegetale 4(1): 27-49



Isolated tissues of Ephedra, cultivated in vitro, were exposed to low temperatures (+6.degree. C and +2.degree. C), during varied times (1 d [day], 14 d), with continued illumination. The fine structures of energetic organelles (mitochondria, plastids) were observed under these conditions, comparatively with those of samples, subjected to optimal temperature (26.degree. C). The organelles were observed in meristematic cells (during the mitosis or interphase), and in others, differentiated. The mitochondria were dilated, with little clear areas, in the matrix, after 1 d at +2.degree. C. Again, they became polymorphic. Filamentous, ramified mitochondria were conspicuous in differentiated cells, after freezing for 14 d. Several plastids achieved division after 1 d at 2.degree. C. Their structures were the same as those of platids in samples exposed to 26.degree. C. After a long stay at freezing, many chloroplasts were elongated, winded and ramified. Many plastids were grouped together with mitochondria. Grana became less numerous. They derived from many thylakoids, which were associated together. In each granum, the extent of the partition surfaces was irregular. The thylakoid membranes can get a preferential orientation in the section of chloroplasts, in a defined group.

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