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Effects of planting location and temperature on the oil content and fatty acid composition of sunflower helianthus annuus seeds



Effects of planting location and temperature on the oil content and fatty acid composition of sunflower helianthus annuus seeds



U S Department of Agriculture Science & Education Administration Agricultural Research Results ARR-S (3): 1-9



Total oil content and fatty acid composition were determined on the seed of sunflowers, H. annuus L., from the 1976 and 1977 USA National Sunflower Performance Trials. In 1976, oil content of seed of 10 sunflower hybrids and 2 varieties from 24 locations in the USA and 1 location each in Canada and Mexico ranged 33.2-54.2% and averaged 34.3% for all locations, whereas linoleic acid content ranged 31.8-74.0% and averaged 55.7%. Palmitic and stearic acids averaged 5.3% and 3.8%, respectively. In 1977, oil content of seed of 12 sunflower hybrids and 2 varieties from 36 locations in the USA and 1 location each in Canada and Mexico ranged from 33.2%-53.9% and averaged 46.3%. Oleic acid content ranged from 13.7-59.2% and averaged 31.1% for all locations, whereas linoleic acid content ranged 32.4 to 75.9% and averaged 59.5%. Palmitic and stearic acids averaged 5.4% and 3.9%, respectively. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant difference in oil content between hybrids and varieties in 1976 and 1977. For both years, temperature and latitude had a highly significant effect on fatty acid composition. Oleic acid was positively correlated with minimum temperature (r = 0.87), whereas palmitic (r = -0.71), stearic (r = -0.57) and linoleic (r = -0.83) acids were negatively correlated with minimum temperature. A linear regression model of linoleic acid content vs. average minimum temperature during seed development showed a straight-line fit of the data, with R2 = 0.69. Sunflower oil for products requiring highly polyunsaturated oil, such as margarine and salad dressings, might be obtained from planting locations above 39.degree. latitude and sunflower oil used in snack-food frying might be obtained from planting locations below 39.degree.

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Accession: 005320134

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