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Effects of rapeseed meal on thyroid status of cattle glucosinolate and iodine content of milk and other parameters



Effects of rapeseed meal on thyroid status of cattle glucosinolate and iodine content of milk and other parameters



Journal of Nutrition 109(7): 1129-1139



Rapeseed meal contains glucosinolates and aglucones, some of which have been implicated as being antinutritional and toxic. The effects of feeding rapeseed meals (RSM) containing low (Tower) or high (Target/Turret) levels of glucosinolates on thyroid status, and glucosinolate content of milk and other parameters were studied in dairy cows and young calves. RSM (Tower and Turret) fed to dairy cows at 25% of the grain mixture reduced I content of milk. Diets containing Tower and Turret RSM tended to reduce plasma thyroxine (T4) in cows and increase thyroid size in rats. Calf diets containing Target and Tower RSM resulted in increased liver and thyroid weights, but only those containing Target tended to reduce plasma T4 levels. Feed intake, weight gain, Hb, blood cell volume and erythrocyte count in calves were not affected by diets containing Tower RSM, but Target RSM reduced all these parameters. Diets containing Target caused more pronounced histological changes of the calves' thyroid than those containing Tower RSM. No measurable amounts of intact glucosinolates were detected in milk of cows fed RSM. Similarly the glucosinolate aglucones, isothiocyanates or vinyl oxazolidinethione, were not transferred to milk although small amounts of unsaturated nitrile (1-cyano-2-hydroxy-3-butene) and inorganic thiocyanate were detected in milk. Rats receiving milk from cows fed Turret RSM developed larger thyroid than those receiving milk from control-fed cows. Supplemental I (61.0 .mu.g/day) in the rat prevented thyroid enlargement.

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