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Effects of seeding density and nitrogen application on growth and yield of winter wheat triticum aestivum cultivar horoshirikomugi in the abashiri district japan



Effects of seeding density and nitrogen application on growth and yield of winter wheat triticum aestivum cultivar horoshirikomugi in the abashiri district japan



Bulletin of Hokkaido Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Stations (44): 12-24



Experiments were made during the winter cropping cycles 1977-1978 and 1978-1979 (henceforth referred to as 1977 and 1978) at the Kitami Agricultural Experiment Station, Hokkaido, Japan. Effects of seeding density and N application on the growth and the grain yield of winter wheat (T. aestivum L. Horoshirikomugi) were studied at different growth stages in the field. All experiments were of split plot design with 3 replications, and density .times. application interaction was also examined. Row spacing was 30 cm in all experiments. In 1977, lodging was excessive, the optimum seeding density for the maximum grain yield was 350 plants/m2 at 8 kg N/10a, and was 111 plants/m2 at 14 and 20 kg N/10a. Seeding density .times. N application interaction was slightly significant. N application interaction was non-significant. It is suggested that higher densities and higher N application conditions promoted lodging. In 1978, in which weather conditions were very good for wheat growth, grain yield increment was curvilinearly related to increment of N application (N: 8-18 kg/10a) but was not related to increment of seeding density (111-700 plants/m2). Increased seeding density was associated with high LAI [leaf area index] at anthesis, increased number of spikes/m2 at maturity, and unaffected LAI of the top leaf at anthesis. Increased seeding density was associated with low concentration of chlorophyll and N in the top leaf blade after anthesis, decreased the ratio of dry matter of the top leaf blade, and decreased number of grains of spike at maturity. It is suggested that grain yield was unaffected by seeding density within the range 111-700 plants/m2 according to these tendencies. Although weather and growing conditions differed greatly between the years, 111 plants/m2 showed the most stable yield; above this density plants are susceptible to lodging and the yield reaches a plateau or decreases. The present standard seeding density of about 350 plants/m2 may be reduced in the Abashiri district, if cultivation conditions are suitable.

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