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Epidemiological surveillance: a tool for assessment of malaria and its control


, : Epidemiological surveillance: a tool for assessment of malaria and its control. Journal of Communicable Diseases 16(3): 197-207

From the early twentieth century spleen and parasite surveys among children from the 2-9 yr age-group provided the basic information on the status of malaria from an area and the endemicity grades of different areas were classified on the basis of the spleen survey. It was also apparent that the parasite rate among infants (up to 12 mo.) can provide significant information on the quantum of malaria transmission. Some preferred to study the infectivity rate (sporozoites) in anopheles vectors, even though it is often a painstaking task with a great degree of limitations. Thus, the usual malariometric survey included child spleen and parasite surveys and infant parasite rate (IPR) studies. In some instances entomological aspects were also studied. Epidemiological surveillance is a concept of the malaria eradication campaign designed to ensure total coverage of the entire population through various activities. It is introduced at an advanced stage of the campaign when the classical malariometric surveys are not sensitive enough to determine the exact malaria status of an area, so essential in the eradication context. The disciplines and dynamics under the system are screening of all fever cases on total geographical coverage basis as well as through the health agencies in search of malaria by examination of blood smears of such cases, institution of prompt treatment and initiating preventive measures based on epidemiological investigations. It is also designed to measure accurately the status of malaria and its transmission and thus the progress of the eradication campaign with the help of a number of parasitological parameters.

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Accession: 005375666

PMID: 6334703

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