Epidermis and lymphocyte interactions during an allergic patch test reaction. Increased activity of ETAF/IL-1, epidermal derived lymphocyte chemotactic factor and mixed skin lymphocyte reactivity in persons with type IV allergy

Larsen, C.G.; Ternowitz, T.; Larsen, F.G.; Thestrup-Pedersen, K.

Journal of Investigative Dermatology 90(2): 230-233

1988


ISSN/ISBN: 0022-202X
PMID: 2963072
DOI: 10.1111/1523-1747.ep12462300
Accession: 005377221

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Abstract
Recently, we have found an increased activity of epidermal-derived thymocyte-activating factor (ETAF/IL-1) and epidermal lymphocyte chemotactic factor (ELCF) in epidermis overlying a positive tuberculin skin reaction. In the present study, we investigated 20 patients with confirmed or suspected allergic contact dermatitis by using the suction blister technique before and during patch testing. The ETAF/IL-1 was found in epidermia before patch testing. Its presence increased 2.8-fold in epidermis overlying a positive patch test compared with pretesting values. This increase was statistically significant. Interestingly, nontested skin also showed a significant increase of ETAF/IL-1, which was 1.9-fold higher than pretest values. The ETAF/IL-1 activity in patch test areas was significantly correlated with the clinical response. ELCF is not present in epidermis from noneczematous persons. We observed a significant content of ELCF in three of seven patients with eczema prior to patch testing. After patch testing, all patients showed ELCF in epidermis. Nontested skin showed a 1.5-fold higher content of ELCF compared with pretest values, and in the test area ELCF was 1.8-fold higher. The increases were statistically significant. We performed mixed skin lymphocyte reactions in seven patients using epidermal cells from the patch test area. All patients with a positive patch test had an increased mixed skin lymphocyte reactivity compared with epidermis coming from a negative reaction.

Epidermis and lymphocyte interactions during an allergic patch test reaction. Increased activity of ETAF/IL-1, epidermal derived lymphocyte chemotactic factor and mixed skin lymphocyte reactivity in persons with type IV allergy