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Evaluation of a daphnia magna renewal life cycle test method with silver and endosulfan


, : Evaluation of a daphnia magna renewal life cycle test method with silver and endosulfan. Water Research 16(5): 739-744

Four contract and 2 USA Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] laboratories participated in round-robin tests using D. magna as the test animals to determine if methods set forth in the Proposed Standard Practice for Conducting Renewal Life Cycle Tests with Daphnids (ASTM [American Society for Testing and Materials] drafts 2 and 4 with modification) were adequate for routine laboratory testing. Ag and endosulfan [insecticide] were the toxicants used. The 48 h acute test used for determining EC50 values and estimating initial concentrations for the chronic test has been used for many yr with good results and this round-robin confirmed its value. The renewal life-cycle test as proposed by ASTM was potentially useful but only 3 of the 6 laboratories completed the tests successfully and they had many difficulties. EC50 values (48 h, no food) for Ag were 48, 55 (high values due to hard water), 8.4, 14.9, 1.1, 0.6, 0.64, 0.66, 0.9, 1.03 and 2.9 .mu.g-1. The 48 h EC50 values for endosulfan were 390, 630, 720, 372, 328, 343, 271, 218, 282, 266, 158, 280, 740 (LC50) and 378 (LC50) .mu.g-1. The 21 day EC50 values for Ag were 2.9, 3.6 and 3.9; for endosulfan they were 170 and 130 .mu.g-1. Chronic MATC values based on reproduction for Ag were 10.5-21.2, 20-41, 1.6-4.1, 8.8-19.4, 3.4-8.0 and 2.7-3.9 .mu.g-1. Chronic MATC [maximum allowable toxicant concentration] values for endosulfan were 35-73, 75-154, 20-32 and 32-48 .mu.g-1. Culture and feeding procedures and care of brood animals in cultures prior to testing were weak links in the test procedure. If young animals used to start the test were not healthy, the test was not likely to succeed, primarily because of the problem of maintaining at least 80% survival of controls. Excessive handling during transfer to new solutions (3 times/wk for 4 wk) directly damaged animals during pipetting and stressed brood-carrying adults. Feeding rates of 30 mg food/l test water depleted dissolved O2. Lower feeding rates and modification of rations, as by addition of vitamin enriched algae, were suggested. The preparation of fresh test solutions 3 times/wk, with analyses to verify the concentrations, was time consuming, expensive and presented many opportunities for error. The laboratories felt that the flow-through daphnid life-cycle test was more reliable for most test purposes and that EPA should recommend it in addition to the renewal test.

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