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Expansion of trans mural myo cardial infarction a patho physiologic factor in cardiac rupture

, : Expansion of trans mural myo cardial infarction a patho physiologic factor in cardiac rupture. Circulation 60(7): 1532-1538

The 10-20% incidence of cardiac rupture in acute fatal myocardial infarction has not changed in the past century, and little is known about its pathophysiology. To determine whether expansion (acute dilatation and thinning of the area of infarction not explained by resorption of necrotic tissue) may be a variable predictive for rupture, 110 autopsied patients who died of acute myocardial infarction were studied. The presence and severity of expansion was determined qualitatively on a scale of 0-4+ from review of the postmortem radiographs and quantitatively by a ratio of wall thickness adjacent to the rupture site to thickness of the noninfarcted wall. By radiographs, 54 (49%) had expansion, of whom 23 (43%) had rupture in the zone of expansion; of the 56 cases without expansion, 1 (2%) had ruptured (P < 0.005). The severity of expansion related to rupture: 50% with 3-4+ expansion ruptured, compared to 23% with 1-2+ expansion. Wall thickness for patients without expansion were 0.93 .+-. 0.10; for those with expansion but no rupture, 0.62 .+-. 016; and 0.49 .+-. 0.13 for those with expansion and rupture (P < 0.01). Wall thinning in these 3 groups was noted at average postinfarction intervals of 8, 7 and 5.5 days, respectively, too early to be caused by resorption. Expansion of acute myocardial infarction is a previously unappreciated variable that appears to be predictive of rupture, suggesting that regional dilatation and thinning out newly infarcted myocardium may be of pathogenetic importance in the development of rupture. Since expansion can be identified with 2-dimensional echocardiography, and occurs over days, these findings suggest that patients at high risk for rupture may be recognized early and interventions to prevent further expansion and rupture evaluated.

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Accession: 005419383

PMID: 498481

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