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Expectancy effects vs demand characteristics an empirically unresolvable issue

Expectancy effects vs demand characteristics an empirically unresolvable issue

Behavior Therapy 9(3): 363-367

In psychotherapy theory, client expectancies and demand characteristics function as artifacts which constrain the attribution of causal qualities to therapy procedures. More recently, an expectancy vs. demand issue emerged in psychotherapy research literature. An examination of the elements of that issue in relation to available research methodologies indicates that the issue is not empirically resolvable. Rather, the expectancy vs. demand issue is a specific instance of the clash between the more general environmental-behavioral and cognitive-motivational paradigms.

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