Factors influencing the production of creatinine: implications for the determination and interpretation of urinary creatinine and creatine in man
Fuller, N.J.; Elia, M.
Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry 175(3): 199-210
ISSN/ISBN: 0009-8981 PMID: 3416481 DOI: 10.1016/0009-8981(88)90096-4
The rates of creatine/creatinine inter-conversions and their equilibrium were studied under controlled conditions of temperature and pH that simulate urine storage conditions. The concentrations and ratios of creatine to creatinine in urine obtained from subjects with various pathophysiological conditions were determined, both before and after storage. The observed changes occurring during storage were compared with predicted changes based on observations of standard solutions. The initial reaction rate was found to increase with temperature, occurring maximally at about pH 3.7 for the conversion of creatine to creatinine, and at about pH 5.0 for the conversion of creatinine to creatine. At low pHs the equilibrium position was displaced towards creatinine. Above about pH 6.0 the equilibrium was associated with approximately equimolar quantities of creatine and creatinine. The creatine content of urine ranged from virtually nil to about double that of creatinine and changed predictably during storage. These findings have implications for the use of creatinine as an index of muscle mass and nutritional status, and as a marker for the completeness of urine collections.