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Frontal ambulacral and peribuccal areas of the spatangoid echinoid echinocardium cordatum echinodermata a functional entity in feeding mechanism



Frontal ambulacral and peribuccal areas of the spatangoid echinoid echinocardium cordatum echinodermata a functional entity in feeding mechanism



Marine Biology 94(4): 613-624



Echinocardium cordatum (Pennant, 1777) were collected in Normandy, France, in March and November 1985. The grooved frontal ambulacrum of the burrowing echinoid E. cordatum functions in transferring surface sediment from the apex to the mouth of the echinoid. Particles that fall down the burrow's chimney accumulate between the spines of the apical tuft and are taken over by specialized groove spines. Due to the slope of the groove and the type of floor spines it harbours, four successive regions can recognized, namely the adapical region, the fasciolar region, the ambital region, and the adoral region. As a general rule aboral floor spines (i.e. club-shaped, golf-club-shaped, and isodiametric spines) function in gathering particles while propelling them mouthwards; they simultaneously embed particles in a mucous string. The oral floor spines (i.e. spatullated spines) function in hauling and guiding the mucous string towards the peribuccal area of the echinoid. Once facing the peribuccal area, particles are picked up by the peribuccal tube feet that either transfer them into the esophagus or scrape them out against the peribuccal spines. Spine-retained particles are either sucked up by the pumping action of the esophagus or fall to the burrow's floor where the tube feet may pick them up again. Together the apical tuft, the frontal groove, and the peribuccal area form an efficient food-collecting system that transfers trapped surface particles from the echinoid apex down to the mouth. Compared to that of most other spatangoids the frontal ambulacrum of E. cordatum is highly specialized. Such specialization is related to colonization of fine sediment, as is the occurrence of a chimney linking the burrow to the sediment surface. Actually the burrow's chimney is the only route for oxygen and food supply; it acts as a real ecological umbilical cord for spatangoids buried in fine sediment.

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Accession: 005488705

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DOI: 10.1007/bf00431408


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