Genetic diversity of the cytoplasm in triticum and aegilops part 6 distribution of the ha ploid inducing cytoplasms
Tsunewaki, K.; Mukai, Y.; Endo, T.R.; Tsuji, S.; Murata, M.
Japanese Journal of Genetics 51(3): 193-200
Common wheat, Triticum aestivum cv. 'Salmon', is known to produce haploids in response to some alien cytoplasms. The distribution of the haploid-inducing cytoplasms to this wheat was investigated using 19 spp. belonging to 2 genera, Triticum (wheat) and Aegilops. The cytoplasms of 7 Polyeides species (A. umbellulata, A. biuncialis, A. columnaris, A. triaristata (6x), A. kotschyi, A. variabilis and A. triuncialis) and 1 Cylindropyrum species (A. caudata) of Aegilops induced haploids at various frequencies (7.1-33.6%). One species of each Polyeides (A. ovata) and Cylindropyrum (A. cylindrica), and all species of Vertebrata (A. squarrosa, A. juvenalis and A. crassa (6x)), Sitopsis (A. speltoides and A. sharonensis) and Triticum (T. boeoticum, T. dicoccum, T. timopheevi and T. aestivum) tested produced no haploids, except for 1 plant. Distribution of the haploid-inducing cytoplasms is confined to the Polyeides and Cylindropyrum sections of Aegilops. It was assumed that the plasmagene(s) for haploid induction of A. umbellulata, A. biuncialis, A. columnaris, A. triaristata (6x), and A. triuncialis of the Polyeides, and A. caudata of Cylindropyrum has a common origin with each other, while the gene(s) of A. kotschyi and A. variabilis of Polyeides has a different origin. Three pollen parents of T. aestivum; 'Salmon', 'Chinese Spring' and 'Jones Fife' showed different haploid-inducing powers in the order of 'Jones Fife' (22.0%), 'Salmon' (18.3%) and 'Chinese Spring' (12.3%). All the haploid-inducing cytoplasms except 1 (A. umbellulata produced twin and triplet seedlings at high frequencies (2.8-14.3%). Of the twins, 92% were the haplo-diplo type and all the triplets were the haplo-haplo-diplo type. The production of the twin and triplet seedlings of these types is intimately related to the induction of haploid parthenogenesis by the cytoplasms.