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Histo pathological changes of apple bark infected by valsa ceratosperma during dormant and growing periods



Histo pathological changes of apple bark infected by valsa ceratosperma during dormant and growing periods



Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 48(4): 490-498



Single hyphae of the V. ceratosperma, the causal fungus of apple canker, can invade the cortical tissues and phloem of apple bark very slowly during the dormant season. A transition zone composed of collapsed cells was found between diseased and healthy tissues. Invasion by single hyphae also occurred in the early growing season (May) when the development of canker lesion was most active. As temperature rose from June to July, several cell layers were lignified in the transition zone beyond the mycelial invasion, followed by the formation of cork layers with thin-walled cork cells. In this season, the fungus proliferated to form a fan-shaped mycelium and destroyed the wound cork layers. However, repeated formation of wound cork layers resulted in a decreased rate of lesion development. Wound cork layers with thick-walled cork cells which were formed in Aug. may play a role as a complete barrier against invasion by the causal fungus. With a decline of temperature in autumn, mycelium was again able to invade healthy tissue by penetrating through defective cork layers between the periderm and cortex or phloem and xylem. When apple bark was artificially wounded, wound cork layers were produced slowly during winter, but rapidly during summer. Wound cork layers formed as a result of mycelial infection act as a temporal barrier to invasion; their rate of formation depends on the host metabolic activity.

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Accession: 005576033

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