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Histological studies on breaking resistance of lower internodes in rice culm 2. ultrastructural and histochemical observations on the secondary wall formation



Histological studies on breaking resistance of lower internodes in rice culm 2. ultrastructural and histochemical observations on the secondary wall formation



Japanese Journal of Crop Science 52(1): 84-93



Observations made with light and electron microscope on the process of the secondary wall thickening and lignin accumulation in the cells of the 4th internode from the top of rice culm, cv. Koshihikari, are reported. Materials for ultra thin sections were fixed in 2-4% glutaraldehyde, postfixed with 1-2% osmium tetroxide and embedded in Spurr's resin. Meshes were stained with U and Pb. For histochemical detections of lignin, free hand sections, 60-80 .mu.m in thickness, were treated with Maule's reagents (M-reaction) and phloroglucinol-HCl (P-reaction). The secondary wall of the cortical fibers starts to thicken just after the cell had completed elongation. It usually consists of 3 layers: S1, S2 and S3. Increase in secondary wall thickness is associated with increase in number of Golgi apparatus, Golgi vesicles, exosytosis and invagination. The ribosomes are often present as polysomes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum, some of which connect with the plasmalemma. The fiber cells have smaller diameter and thicker walls in the outer rows near the epidermis than those in the inner rows which sometime lack the S3 layer. The secondary walls of the tips of fiber cells thicken more slowly and are thinner than those of the central part. The epidermal long cells have a large number of small papillae and a number of large ones on both sides of the short cells, but fewer papillae on the small vascular bundle. The aspects of cell organelles at their wall thickening stage are similar to those in the cortical fibers. At this stage, silica deposition cetripetally progresses from the inside of cuticular layer in all the outer walls of the long cells, especially in those of the silica cells. As for the parenchyma cells, a large vacuole is formed from an early stage of cell development, and conspicuous invaginations are often seen accompanied with ribosomes. No lignin is detected in elongating cell walls except those of the protoxylem vessels. On and after the beginning of the secondary wall thickening, the M-reaction begins. On and after beginning of the S2 layer thickening, P-reaction follows up the traces of M-reaction. M-reaction decreases in the part where P-reaction is positive. In the 4th mature internode, the P-reaction is generally intensive in the epidermis, cortical fibers and small vascular bundle. M-reaction is the most intensive in the large vascular bundle sheath. In a fiber cell, the P-reaction is most intensive in the middle lamella-primary wall complex and decreases centripetally. The M-reaction is intensive on the faint parts of P-reaction, but neither reaction is obvious in the parenchyma. Secondary wall thickening and the lignin accumulation in the 4th internode of the cultivar terminate about 5 days after heading.

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Accession: 005580211

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