+ Translate
+ Most Popular
Cranial nerves of Labeo rohita (Ham.)
Cytogenetic analysis of ZZWW triploid silkworm (Bombyx mori)
Effectiveness of posterior crossbite correction during the mixed dentition
Classification of liver cirrhosis based on parenchymal echo patterns and its clinical usefulness for diagnosis of liver cirrhosis
The identity of the lipstick mold of cultivated mushrooms agaricus bisporus
Inhibition of haemolytic activity of snake and scorpion venom by date extract
Effectiveness of iron amino acid chelate on the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in adolescents
Furunculosis and pseudofurunculosis
Some Biological Applications of Organometallic Compounds
Stassanisation of Milk
Pulse rate, respiration, and body temperature of Philippine carabaos
Sports fans: measuring degree of identification with their team
Enterobacter amnigenus. An unusual human pathogen
Vitamin B12 deficiency as a worldwide problem
Therapy for acne with saccharomyces boulardii
Comparison of rice bran and maize bran as feeds for growing and fattening pigs
The Difil Test kit for detection of canine heartworm microfilariae
Gafner Mini-skidder
Vegetable protein for combating protein malnutrition in developing countries
Comparative morphology of fish olfactory epithelium part 6 siluriformes
Mycotechnology: the role of fungi in biotechnology
On the nature and role of vivotoxins in plant disease
A study on compatibility of some insecticides with a fungicide on small cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton.)
Evidence for Late Cretaceous N-S dextral shear in the west-central crystalline core, North Cascades, Washington
Advantages and disadvantages of bordeaux mixture and of lime-sulphur used on apples in the growing season

Human monkeypox: disease pattern, incidence and attack rates in a rural area of northern Zaire

Human monkeypox: disease pattern, incidence and attack rates in a rural area of northern Zaire

Tropical and Geographical Medicine 40(2): 73-83

ISSN/ISBN: 0041-3232

PMID: 2841783

Human monkeypox is a zoonosis that occurs sporadically in the tropical rainforest of western and central Africa. This article presents the results of epidemiological features of 91 monkeypox patients reported in Bumba zone in northern Zaire during the period 1981 to 1985. Their age ranged from 7 months to 29 years (93% below 15 years of age). 11% of patients had visible smallpox vaccination scars. Deaths occurred sporadically; the overall case-fatality rate was 9%. 91 patients arose in 61 separate outbreaks; 42 of them consisted of only a single case. The source of infection was suspected to be animal for 70 cases, and human for the remaining 21 cases. The illness occurred in all months of the year. There was a considerable clustering of cases in the northern part of the zone. The average annual incidence rate in the observed zone was 0.63 cases per 10,000 population with marked differences in age, time and place. The average annual primary attack rate among unvaccinated individuals (1.7/10,000) sharply contrasted with those vaccinated (0.04/10,000). The secondary attack rate for contacts without vaccination scar (4.3%) differed significantly from those who had been vaccinated in past (0.7%). Many unvaccinated contacts living under conditions of maximal exposure to index cases escaped not only the disease but also infection. The low incidence rate of human monkeypox indicates its limited public health importance even in a well-known enzootic area.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 005593467

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

Related references

Re-emergence of human monkeypox in Zaire in 1996. Monkeypox Epidemiologic Working Group. Lancet 349(9063): 1449-1450, 1997

Human monkeypox: secondary attack rates. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 66(4): 465-470, 1988

Human monkeypox transmitted by a chimpanzee in a tropical rain-forest area of Zaire. Lancet 1(8327): 735-737, 1983

Prevalence of serological hepatitis A and B markers in a rural area of northern Zaire. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 34(3): 620-624, 1985

Human monkeypox hits beleaguered Zaire. Lancet 349(9053): 709, 1997

Re-emergence of human monkeypox in Zaire in 1996. Lancet (North American Edition) 349(9063): 1449-1450, 1997

Sex Differences in Stroke Attack, Incidence, and Mortality Rates in Northern France. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association 27(5): 1368-1374, 2018

Human monkeypox--Kasai Oriental, Zaire, 1996-1997. Mmwr. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 46(14): 304-307, 1997

Comparisons of monkeypox viruses from animal and human infections in Zaire. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 46(5): 327-329, 1994

Human monkeypox in Kasai Oriental, Zaire (1996-1997). Releve Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire 72(15): 101-104, 1997

Serological survey for human monkeypox infections in a selected population in Zaire. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 90(1): 31-38, 1987

Monkeypox virus in relation to the ecological features surrounding human settlements in Bumba zone, Zaire. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 39(1): 56-63, 1987

Human monkeypox in Kasai Oriental, Democratic Republic of the Congo (former Zaire). Preliminary report of October 1997 investigation. Releve epidemiologique hebdomadaire 72(49): 369-372, 1997

Incidence rates of myelodysplastic syndromes in a Northern-Spanish area. Leukemia Research 23(Suppl. 1): S61, 1999

Person-to-person transmission of human monkeypox within households, Kasai Oriental, Zaire, 1996-1997. Clinical Infectious Diseases 25(2): 429, 1997