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Influence of long term fertilizer trials with increasing potassium and phosphorus levels on potassium and phosphorus dynamics in the soil and on yield



Influence of long term fertilizer trials with increasing potassium and phosphorus levels on potassium and phosphorus dynamics in the soil and on yield



Landwirtschaftliche Forschung 32(3): 283-291



The change of K and P dynamics and its influence on yield were studied in 15 yr field experiments carried out in Yugoslavia on 2 weakly acid (pH 5.5) soils (gray brown luvisol and pseudogley). The K and P concentration of the soil solution and the EUF-K and P-values are the best indicator for the change of K and P dynamics during 15 yr of fertilizer application. The P2O5 AL-values were also increased by P fertilization, but the soil-specific change of P dynamics is more precisely characterized by the aforementioned methods. The K2O AL-values were hardly influenced by K fertilization, in particular in the pseudogley which contains a high amount of K-selective clay minerals. The pK - 1/2 p (Ca + Mg) values and the phosphate potential (Schofield) were also hardly changed by long-term fertilizer application. This is due to the fact that owing to K and P fertilization the Ca concentration of the soil solution increased as a result of exchange processes in the soil, thus keeping the potentials almost constant. Simple ion concentrations are, therefore, more suitable than the potentials for defining nutrient dynamics changed by fertilizer application. The content of exchangeable Al was decreased by P application in the pseudogley and increased by K application in both soils, which probably limits the yield increase in the case of greater K application. K and P application produced yield increases with wheat and maize. The increase due to P was higher than that due to K, as the sites were poor in P. The change in the exchangeable Al content as a result of K fertilization has also to be taken into consideration. At higher K supply (90-100 kg N/ha) the yield-increasing and yield-securing effect of K becomes clearly visible. The effect can be enhanced by liming which eliminates Al influence.

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