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Inhibition of chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats by long term exposure to butylated hydroxytoluene interrelations among butylated hydroxytoluene concentration carcinogen dose and diet



Inhibition of chemically induced mammary carcinogenesis in rats by long term exposure to butylated hydroxytoluene interrelations among butylated hydroxytoluene concentration carcinogen dose and diet



Journal of the National Cancer Institute 76(4): 721-730



In outbred female Sprague-Dawley rats long-term exposure to dietary butylated hydroxytoluene [3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene (BHT); CAS: 128-37-0] 1 week before carcinogen administration to termination resulted in a dose-related inhibition to mammary tumorigenesis and adrenocortical nodulogenesis. In animals fed the cereal-based NIH-07 diet and receiving a low dose (5 mg/rat) of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene [(DBMA) CAS: 57-97-6], there was a significant overall inhibitory trend in tumor incidence observed among those receiving 300, 1,000, 3,000, and 6,000 ppm BHT. Maximal inhibition was approximately 50% at the highest concentration of BHT (6,000 ppm). The inhibitory effect of BHT on mammary tumor incidence was less pronounced when BHT was administered to rats initiated with a high carcinogen dose: At 15 mg DMBA/rat maximal inhibition wsa only 20% at the highest concentration of BHT (6,000 ppm). In contrast, when tumor yield was assessed in terms of latency or tumor multiplicity, the inhibitory effect of BHT was more pronounced in the groups given a high dose of DMBA than in the groups given a low dose. In animals given a low dose of DMBA (5 mg) and fed 6,000 ppm BHT in the casein-based AIN-76A diet, tumor incidence was inhibited by 50% of that of the controls; in contrast, when initiation was with a high dose of DMBA (15 mg), tumor incidence was decreased by only 28% of that of the controls. In animals fed the NIH-07 diet, DMBA-induced adrenocortical nodule formation was also inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by BHT. At 5 mg DMBA maximal inhibition was 86% of control levels (6,000 ppm BHT); at 15 mg DMBA maximal inhibition was 66% of control levels (6,000 ppm BHT). However, when BHT was incorporated into the AIN-76A diet, its inhibitory effects on adrenocortical nodulogenesis were unexpectedly feeble and unrelated to carcinogen dose: In animals initiated with 5 mg DMBA and administered 6,000 ppm BHT, nodule incidence was decreased by only 25%, whereas in animals initiated with 15 mg DMBA, nodule incidence was decreased by 30% of that of the controls. These results indicate that while chronic exposure to dietary BHT suppressed the development of DMBA-induced mammary tumors and adrenocortical nodules, the degree of suppression depended on the dose of carcinogen administered, the level of BHT in the diet, and the parameter being measured. Diet-dependent differences in BHT action were observed with regard to DMBA-induced adrenocortical nodulogenesis but not with regard to mammary tumorigenesis.

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