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Labeling of specific lysine residues at the active site of glutamine synthetase

Labeling of specific lysine residues at the active site of glutamine synthetase

Journal of Biological Chemistry 260(28): 15042-15050

Glutamine synthetase (Escherichia coli) was incubated with three different reagents that react with lysine residues, viz. pyridoxal phosphate, 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine, and thiourea dioxide. The latter reagent reacts with the epsilon-nitrogen of lysine to produce homoarginine as shown by amino acid analysis, nmr, and mass spectral analysis of the products. A variety of differential labeling experiments were conducted with the above three reagents to label specific lysine residues. Thus pyridoxal phosphate was found to modify 2 lysine residues leading to an alteration of catalytic activity. At least 1 lysine residue has been reported previously to be modified by pyridoxal phosphate at the active site of glutamine synthetase (Whitley, E. J., and Ginsburg, A. (1978) J. Biol. Chem. 253, 7017-7025). By varying the pH and buffer, one or both residues could be modified. One of these lysine residues was associated with approximately 81% loss in activity after modification while modification of the second lysine residue led to complete inactivation of the enzyme. This second lysine was found to be the residue which reacted specifically with the ATP affinity label 5'-p-fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine. Lys-47 has been previously identified as the residue that reacts with this reagent (Pinkofsky, H. B., Ginsburg, A., Reardon, I., Heinrikson, R. L. (1984) J. Biol. Chem. 259, 9616-9622; Foster, W. B., Griffith, M. J., and Kingdon, H. S. (1981) J. Biol. Chem. 256, 882-886). Thiourea dioxide inactivated glutamine synthetase with total loss of activity and concomitant modification of a single lysine residue. The modified amino acid was identified as homoarginine by amino acid analysis. The lysine residue modified by thiourea dioxide was established by differential labeling experiments to be the same residue associated with the 81% partial loss of activity upon pyridoxal phosphate inactivation. Inactivation with either thiourea dioxide or pyridoxal phosphate did not affect ATP binding but glutamate binding was weakened. The glutamate site was implicated as the site of thiourea dioxide modification based on protection against inactivation by saturating levels of glutamate. Glutamate also protected against pyridoxal phosphate labeling of the lysine consistent with this residue being the common site of reaction with thiourea dioxide and pyridoxal phosphate.

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Accession: 005787064

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PMID: 2415512

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