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Laboratory and field investigations in czechoslovakia with fenitrothion pirimiphos methyl temephos and other organo phosphorus larvicides applied as sprays for control of culex pipiens molestus and aedes cantans



Laboratory and field investigations in czechoslovakia with fenitrothion pirimiphos methyl temephos and other organo phosphorus larvicides applied as sprays for control of culex pipiens molestus and aedes cantans



Mosquito News 39(2): 320-328



Organophosphorous (o-p) insecticides (18) and DDT, as either emulsifiable concentrate or wettable powder formulations, were evaluated for larvicidal activity under laboratory conditions simulating natural breeding sites in Czechoslovakia. All 18 compounds were tested against C. pipiens molestus and 8 o-p and DDT against A. cantans. Temephos and chlorpyrifos were the most toxic to C. p. molestus larvae (LC100 0.002 ppm). Bromophos, pirimiphos-methyl and coumaphos were also highly toxic (LC100 0.01 ppm). Among 8 o-p tested under field conditions (flood plain forest), temephos (LC100 0.005 ppm), chlorpyrifos and bromophos (LC100 0.01 ppm) and pirimiphos-methyl and fenitrothion (LC100 0.02 ppm) had the highest larvicidal action against young 4th-instar larvae of A. cantans. The initial larvicidal activity of o-p compounds was reduced by the presence of decaying organic material. Mud and water plants exerted only a negligible influence upon initial kill by fenitrothion, pirimiphosmethyl and temephos. LC100 range for temephos, pirimiphos-methyl and fenitrothion against all larval instars of A. cantans was 0.005-0.02, 0.02-0.05 and 0.02-0.1 ppm, respectively. Pupae showed low sensitivity (LC100 0.5 ppm) to these compounds. Residual effectiveness of fenitrothion, pirimiphos-methyl and temephos applied at doses giving close to 100% kill of A. cantans larvae was 3, 5 and 3-7 days, respectively. Under laboratory conditions simulating natural breeding sites, the residual effectiveness approached these values when water temperatures were 20.degree. C. Presence of water plants greatly reduced residual effectiveness. When fenitrothion, primiphos-methyl and temephos were used at doses giving close to 100% control of the young 4th-instar A. cantans larvae, most nontarget organisms survived (Rhynchelmis spp. [a water worm], Mollusca [water snails], Asellus aquaticus [an isopod], Hydrachna spp. [water mites], Gerris lacustris [water striders] and Dytiscidae [predaceous diving bettles]). Only with Chirocephalopsis grubii (a phyllopod) was mortality 100%. Trichoptera (caddisfly) larvae were very sensitive to fenitrothion and pirimiphos-methyl, as were Cyclops spp. (copepods) and Daphnia spp. (water fleas) to temephos and pirimiphos-methyl. The latter insecticide was also highly toxic to Ostracoda.

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