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Laboratory diagnosis of vibrio fetus induced abortion

Laboratory diagnosis of vibrio fetus induced abortion

Theriogenology 5(3): 129-138

Cattle herds infected with V. fetus var. venerealis have histories of infertility and occasional abortions. V. fetus var. intestinalis does not cause infertility but does cause sporadic abortion in cattle. Fetal tissues are usually not autolysed and the lungs are often partially expanded. Slight dehydration of the carcass, fibrinous pericarditis, pleuritis or peritonitis, or intraabdominal hemorrhage resulting from a ruptured liver may be present. Placentitis is a constant though not pathognomonic lesion. Suppurative necrotic placentitis is a constant though not pathognomonic lesion. Suppurative bronchopneumonia or interstitial hepatitis or both may be present. V. fetus can be isolated most consistently from the fetal abomasal contents and placenta. It may also be isolated from the fetal tissues. Protocols described for examining blood and vaginal mucus from cows for antibodies to V. fetus are not sufficiently accurate for diagnosing vibriosis in individuals. Examination of wet mounts of fetal abomasal contents with dark field or phase contrast microscopy often reveals the presence of V. fetus. The organisms are recognizable by their morphology and characteristic rapid, darting, corkscrew means of motility. V. fetus may be detected in fetal and placental tissues and abomasal contents by fluorescent antibody (FA) techniques. Difficulty has been encountered in producing FA conjugates with sufficient specificity, and adequate controls should always be used.

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