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Leaching of plant nutrients in soils part 3 loss of nitrogen as influenced by the form of fertilizer and residual effects of nitrogen fertilizers



Leaching of plant nutrients in soils part 3 loss of nitrogen as influenced by the form of fertilizer and residual effects of nitrogen fertilizers



Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica 27(3): 165-174



Leaching of N (NO3, NO2 and NH4) was studied in outdoor lysimeters fertilized with Ca(NO3)2, Nitro-Chalk, urea and (NH4)2SO4, during the years 1972-1974. The soil used was the upper subsoil of a cultivated illitic, medium clay from Rasbokil, Uppland [Sweden], limed with CaCO3 to pH 7. A treatment with unlimed soil (pH 5.2) was also included. In the 1st yr (1972) the lysimeters were fertilized at the rate of 0 N, 1 N and 3 N, with rape as crop. In the 2nd yr (1973) the rates were 0 N, 1 N and 2 N and the crop oats. In the 3rd yr (1974) no N was added and the residual effects of N were studied with oats as crop. One watering with 30 mm, made 1 wk after application of the fertilizers and sowing, led to appreciable losses in the Ca(NO3)2 lysimeters, both in 1972 and 1973, but moderate or low losses in the others. During the growing season in 1972, the leaching of N was of the order: Ca(NO3)2 > Nitro-Chalk > Urea > (NH4)2SO4. In 1973 the losses in the urea and Nitro-Chalk lysimeters exceeded, due to intensive nitrification in July, the losses in the Ca(NO3)2 lysimeters. In 1974 only traces of N were found in the leachates. Nitro-Chalk, (NH4)2SO4 and urea in high rates increased the fixed NH4 of the soil. In the N-Serve treated (NH4)2SO4 soil the fixed NH4 was about 30% higher than the average value for the other lysimeters. Exchangeable NH4 was very low in all lysimeters at the end of the third experimental year. NH4 containing fertilizers caused a depression of the soil pH, which was in accordance with the expected acidifying effect of .**GRAPHIC**. when nitrified to .**GRAPHIC**. The final balance shows that the high-rate fertilized soils contained 240 to 600 mg N per lysimeter (= 5 to 12.5 mg N/100 g soil) more than at the start, while in low-rate lysimeters the total removal of N had exceeded the added N by 20 to 154 mg N per lysimeter. The total removal from unfertilized soil amounted to about 10 mg N/100 g of soil, while the total N in the soil at the start was 130 mg N/100 g, most of it as a constituent of the soil organic matter. The total losses by leaching during the 3 yr, in percent of added N, were lowest in the (NH4)2SO4 and highest in the Ca(NO3)2 treatments.

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