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Microbial ecology of mycorrhizal fungus tricholoma matsutake in pine forest part 4 the shiro of tricholoma matsutake in the fungal community


Bulletin for the Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute (297): 59-104
Microbial ecology of mycorrhizal fungus tricholoma matsutake in pine forest part 4 the shiro of tricholoma matsutake in the fungal community
The morphological features of the Shiro [fruiting body] of T. matsutake, its growth and the age of Shiro was reported. The mycorrhiza and its distribution with respect to the Shiro was described. Microbial florae in the Shiro soil and on the mycorrhiza were analyzed. This fungus inhabits mineral soil with little organic matters and forms a mass of mycorrhiza with parasitic character. The mycorrhiza produces some antibiotics to exclude some soil fungi and most of soil bacteria from the inside of the Shiro. The stable microbial community consisting of the specific fungal components [Mycena spp., Collybia peronata, Galerina vittaeformis, Suillus bovinus, Gomphidius rutilus, Cortinarius spp., Lactarius rolemus, Tricholoma spp., Lyophyllum carbonarium, Ronites caperata, Ramaria spp., Polyporus confluens, Hydnum repandum var. album, Calodon zonatus, Ascocorynium vitellinum and Discomycete] is formed and extends radially with the growth of mycelium and mycorrhiza. The Shiros of T. matsutake with such ecological characters were formed with high frequency mainly along the ridges of hills or mountains in the western district of Japan, and the distribution in a certain area or stand is not homogeneous, but relatively aggregative at some specific sites. It is possible to learn the causes of such an irregular distribution of Shiros in one stand from the survey of the terrestrial plant community. It is supposed from the previous works that the higher frequency of Shiro formation was caused by the abundancy of young pine roots with the activity to produce a number of fine roots, the simplicity in soil microbial flora and mycorrhizal fungi resulting from the poor accumulation of litter and the existence of suitable soil physical and chemical conditions for the mycelial growth. The Shiro formation in Pinus densiflora forests seems to begin in the 15-20th year after generation and finishes in the 40-50th year. About 20% of the Shiro once formed disappears even in the young stage, but the others are able to survive under the ground extending outwards for several decades. In old stands more than 70-80 yr old, most of Shiros are damaged by some antagonistic fungi or the lack of young roots, and disappears rapidly after being deformed to the smaller mycelial masses. It is natural that the productivity of fruit body is proportional to the number of Shiro with high activity, but the annual productivity is apt to depend upon the precipitation and the soil temperature in the fall. Most of the P. densiflora forest on lower mountains have developed by natural regeneration after cutting, and the plant communities in these stands were also changing with the growth of trees. It is certain that the soil microbial and fungal florae in the pine stand are changing with soil development, and the changes in a plant community. And also the Shiro of T. matsutake situates as one of the soil inhabitants and mycorrhizal fungi on the process of fungal succession in the forest ecosystem. Probably most of the higher fungi in pine forests more or less exhibit similar ecological status and play various roles among fungal components. Asada suggested that there was a succession in the community of higher fungi according to the ageing of the pine forest, and that the frequency of Shiro formation depended upon the soil development and vegetation. Sagara reported that the species composition of higher fungi in the old stand of P. densiflora was obviously different from that in the young stand. Hongo and Kinugawa recorded the florae of higher fungi occurring in the pine forest with T. matsutake. On the soil microbial florae in pine forest, Okazaki and Tazoe reviewed the studies comparing with the results of isolation from several stands of pine forests, but it was difficult from these results to recognize the differences between the soil microbes in the stand with T. matsutake and that in the stand without it. Therefore, the ecological studies on higher fungi and the correlation between fungi and other ecological components will become the essential parts of rese.

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Accession: 005896331



Related references

Microbial ecology of mycorrhizal fungus, Tricholoma matsutake (Ito et Imai) Sing. in pine forest. iV. The Shiro and Tricholoma matsutake in the fungal community. 1977

Microbial ecology of mycorrhizal fungus tricholoma matsutake in pine forest part 1 fungal colony shiro of tricholoma matsutake. Bulletin for the Forestry & Forest Products Research Institute (272): 79-121, 1975

Microbial ecology of mycorrhizal fungus, Tricholoma matsutake Ito et Imai (Sing.) in Pine forest I. Fungal colony ('Shiro') of Tricholoma matsutake. Bulletin of the Government Forest Experiment Station, Meguro (272): 79-121, 1975

Microbial ecology of the mycorrhizal fungus. Tricholoma matsutake (Ito et Imai) Sing. in pine forests. IV. The shiro of T. matsutake in the fungal community. Bulletin, Government Forest Experiment Station, Japan (297): 59-104, 1977

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Microbial ecology of mycorrhizal fungus - Tricholoma matsutake (Ito & Imai) Sing. in pine forest III. Fungal florae in Shiro soil and on the mycorrhiza. Bulletin of the Government Forest Experiment Station (293): 105-170, 1977

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