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Microbial ecology of shiro in tricholoma matsutake and its allied species 10. tricholoma robustum in pinus densiflora and pinus pumila forest and tricholoma zeller in pinus contorta forests



Microbial ecology of shiro in tricholoma matsutake and its allied species 10. tricholoma robustum in pinus densiflora and pinus pumila forest and tricholoma zeller in pinus contorta forests



Nippon Kingakukai Kaiho 22(2): 231-246



The ecological characteristics of T. robustum in a P. densiflora and P. pumila forest and T. zelleri in a P. contorta forest were investigated. T. robustum of the P. densiflora forest produces circular fruit-bodies during late autumn. The Shiros, fungal colonies of this species form sporadically at the dry sites along ridges or on hill tops where the soil is immature. The mycelial layer, resembling a felt mat, is formed in the upper layer of mineral soil beneath the litter layer, AC horizon and is 4-5 cm thick. Undeveloped mycelial bundles form at the edge of the Shiro. The mycelial layer around the bases of the fruit-bodies thickens and becomes a compact mat including numerous fine mycorrhizae. In the inner part of the Shiro, the permeability of soil is reduced because of the decay of mycelial mat and the desiccation of soil, but it recovers more rapidly than in the case of T. matsutake. The mycorrhiza of P. densiflora formed by T. robustum has a cluster shape, consisting of black, fork-shaped mycorrhizae. The thin fungal sheath and Hartig's net structure are clearly visible. Soil microorganisms are not completely excluded from the inside of the Shiro as in the cases of T. matsutake. The morphological features of the fruit-bodies and cultured mycelia of T. robustum from P. densiflora forests differ from those obtained from a P. pumila forest in Hokkaido. The ecological characteristics are close to each other. T. zelleri collected from a P. contorta forest resembles T. robustum from the P. densiflora forest not only concerning fruit-bodies and the cultured mycelium but also in terms of its ecology and mycorrhiza.

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