Mineral and protein content test weight and yield variations of hard red spring wheat triticum aestivum grain as influenced by fertilization and cultivar

Syltie, P.W.; Dahnke, W.C.

Qualitas Plantarum Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 32(1): 37-50


Accession: 005902768

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Among the complex factors affecting grain nutritional quality, protein and mineral content are highly important. A 2-yr study was conducted in eastern North Dakota [USA] to determine the influence of fertility on the protein and mineral content, test weight and yield of 2 hard red spring wheat (T. aestivum L.) cultivars. Zero, medium (56, 12, and 47 kg/ha), and high (280, 122, and 465 kg/ha) rates of N, P and K, respectively, were applied in a complete factorial arrangement to 'Era' (a semi-dwarf) and 'Waldron' wheat (a tall type) in 1977. Seven of these treatments were repeated in 1978. Micronutrients and S were also applied to most treatments in 1977, and micronutrients but no S to all treatments in 1978. In 1977 on a site with high residual NO3-N, additions of N reduced yields and test weight but increased protein, P, Ca, Zn, Mn and Fe content. At this site application of P increased grain yield, P, K and Mg contents but reduced protein and Zn; fertilizer K increased Mn and Fe content and reduced yield, P, K, and Mg. In 1978, N additions increased grain yield, protein, Ca, and Fe but reduced Zn. The application of P and K had little influence on the composition of the grain in 1978. The two cultivars acted the same both years, with 'Waldron' exceeding 'Era' grain in protein (15%), P (12%), Mg (12%), Mg (12%), Zn (17%), Mn (30%) and Fe (12%). 'Era' surpassed 'Waldron' in test weight (2%), K (2%) and Ca (27%). 'Era' was more responsive to fertilizer additions for most grain parameters. Drier weather conditions and lower soil N status for the 1978 experiment produced grain higher in test weight and P, K, Ca, Mg and Fe content but lower in yield, protein and Zn. Many highly significant fertilizer-grain and grain-grain interactions were observed. Since wheat grain composition may often be altered by fertilizers and cultivars, the range of these changes should become known through investigations by soil scientists, agronomists and nutritionists; additional research should be conducted to determine if their changes are of nutritional significance.