Small Gephyrocapsa from the Pliocene of the site 132 DSDP, Leg 13 and possible phyletic lines extending from G. doronicoides to species of genus Gephyrocapsa and from G. doronicoides to Pseudoemiliania sp. and Emilianias sp. are discussed. A new species of Gephyrocapsa, G. mediterranea sp. nov is described from Plio-Pleistocene sediments recovered in the Tyrrhenian and Alboran Basins [Italy].