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Nodulation and nitrogen fixation by arrowleaf clover trifolium vesiculosum cultivar yuchi effects of phosphorus and potassium



Nodulation and nitrogen fixation by arrowleaf clover trifolium vesiculosum cultivar yuchi effects of phosphorus and potassium



Soil Biology & Biochemistry 16(6): 589-594



Yuchi arrowleaf clover (T. vesiculosum Sav.) has a potential for high forage productivity with desirable symbiotic N2 fixation within most temperate regions. The effects of soil fertility on growth, nodulation, nitrogenase and associated enzyme activities of arrowleaf clover were determined. In greenhouse experiments top growth increased with additions of 300 mg K kg-1 soil, with and without 100 mg P kg-1 soil, to a Cumulic Haplustoll (Port silt loam, pH 6.1). Nodule mass without P fertilizer additions increased linearly up to 400 mg K kg-1 soil. When both P and K fertilizer additions were combined nodule mass increased significantly only up to the 300 mg K addition. However, nodule weight, increased 4-fold with the PK combination treatments. Nitrogenase activity, as measured by C2H2 reduction, more than doubled with P additions and increased linearly up to 400 mg K kg-1 soil, with and without the P additions. Aspartate amino-transferase (AST) activity of nodule cytosol more than doubled with P additions but increased only with up to 300 mg K without P. Highest AST activities were recorded with the 400 mg K addition when combined with P. Glutamate synthetase (GS) activity increased with up to 300 mg K without P addition, but when combined with P was approximately 3 times higher, increasing linearly to 400 mg K. Differences in glutamate synthetase (GOGAT) activity were not significant with K additions without P, but when combined with P treatments were almost doubled up to the 400 mg K concentrations. Multiple regression for nitrogenase (C2H2 red.) as the dependent variable = 5.89 (AST) + 12.79 (GS) + 21.52 (GOGAT) + 13.53 (GDH); R2 = 0.92 and C.V. = 15.6%. Nodule cytosol P and K compositions reflected soil treatment levels and combinations. Reciprocal effects of monovalent cations were highly significant, with increased K concentrations reducing Na content; nitrogenase = 0.12 (P) + 0.01(K) + 0.14 (Ca) -0.34(Na); R2 = 0.86 and C.V. = 21.9%.

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