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Observation on nectar sucking behavior and parous rate of several species horse flies part 1 comparison of nectar sucking behavior in several species of horse flies



Observation on nectar sucking behavior and parous rate of several species horse flies part 1 comparison of nectar sucking behavior in several species of horse flies



Medical Entomology & Zoology 30(2): 159-166



Nine species of horseflies, totally 2000 individuals, were collected at 7 station in Toyama, Iwate or Aomori Prefecture [Japan] either by dry-ice trap or by sweeping. Their nectar-sucking behaviors were discussed after microscopic as well as chemical examinations on nectars ingested. The overall nectar sucking rate in total individuals was 82%, among which, part of the large-sized horseflies, such as Tabanus chrysurus and T. katoi showing rather lower rate. The distribution of nectar-sucking degree was, fully-sucked 10%, and medium and few 36% each. The largest quantity of nectars sucked was 41 .mu.l in T. chrysurus, 35 .mu.l in T. katoi, 20 .mu.l in T. rufidens and T. trigeminus, 14 .mu.l T. humilis and T. sapporoensis, and 13 .mu.l in T. iyoensis. The sugar concentration of nectars sucked ranged from 16.6-77.5% and there seemed to exist a tendency that the smaller the size of the species, the higher the sugar concentration. The distribution of nectars after ingestion was, in general, limited only in the diverticulum, while, in 24% of T. iyoensis, in 10% of T. sapporoensis and in 6% of T. rufidens, nectars were found also in the midgut. Paper chromatographic analysis of nectars indicated that 88% of the individuals possessed fructose, glucose, sucrose and maltose, and 63% of them additionally possessed raffinose and/or melibiose. The diurnal activity of nectar-sucking in T. iyoensis, T. sapporoensis, T. humilis and T. rufidens seemed to parallel blood-sucking activity. Comparison of nectar-sucking between the autogenic T. iyoensis and strongly blood-sucking (anautogenic) T. chrysurus revealed that there was little difference in the rate and degree of nectar-sucking as well as the composition and concentration of sugars. A significant difference was observed only in the distribution of nectars after ingestion, that is, in T. iyoensis nectars were detected also in the midgut. This seemed to be a distinctive character of the autogenic species, since the same distribution pattern was observed also in T. sapporoensis and T. rufidens which belong to the same autogenic species group. [T. nipponicus, T. kinoshitai and T. iyoensis were also collected.].

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