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Observation on nectar sucking behavior and parous rates of 5 species of black flies



Observation on nectar sucking behavior and parous rates of 5 species of black flies



Medical Entomology and Zoology 28(4): 401-407



The quantity and sugar composition of sucked nectars, and the parous rates of blackflies collected at Kohzu ranch in Gunma Prefecture [Japan] from June 22-24, 1974 were investigated. Five species of blackflies were recognized. Female Prosimulium yezoense exhibited the highest nectar-sucking rate of 91.8%, followed by female and male Simulium arakawae at 90.2% and 87.0% respectively, female P. jezonicum at 86.2%, female S. japonicum at 81.7% and female S. iwatense at 70.0%. These rates were much higher than those observed in horseflies or mosquitoes. The volume of fully-sucked nectar was 1.7-2.6 .mu.l in 3 spp. of Simulium and 2.4-2.9 .mu.l in 2 spp. of Prosimulium, the variation being dependent on the body size. The sugar contents per 1 .mu.l nectar recovered from diverticula of fully-sucked individuals were 167-792 .mu.g or 16.7-79.2%, when analyzed by phenol sulfuric acid method. Paper chromatographic analysis revealed 6 different sugars; fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, melibiose and raffinose, the composition of which varied individually. More than half of the fully sucked blackflies possessed 4 or 5 different sugars excluding either sucrose or sucrose and raffinose, although sucrose was always found in nectars sucked by horseflies at the same field. This indicates species differences in nectar sources. The parous rate of 36.7% in S. iwatense was significantly low in contrast to the other 4 spp. which showed value, ranging from 65.0-71.3%. The rates of individuals having sac-like relics were relatively high in all 5 spp., the lowest being 46.2% in S. japonicum. These high rates may be attributed to the fact that the trapping station was located close to a stream (approximately 20 m).

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Accession: 006010919

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