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Participation to a feasibility study for the onchocerciasis control in the logone basin area simulium damnosum complex species distribution in the cameroonian area of the project


Participation to a feasibility study for the onchocerciasis control in the logone basin area simulium damnosum complex species distribution in the cameroonian area of the project



Cahiers O R S T O M (Office de la Recherche Scientifique et Technique Outre-Mer) Serie Entomologie Medicale et Parasitologie 25(3-4): 171-186



The first aim of the feasibility study for the onchocerciasis control in the Sanaga, the Benoue, the Logone and the Chari high basins, was to delimit the boundaries of the area to be treated. This was possible only after the study of the Simulium damnosum complex species distribution in the whole zone. The authors give the classical technics used on cytotaxonomy. The larvae are collected alive, and after blotted dry they are thrown whole into the carnoy's fixative added with chloroforme. Fixed material is stored in refrigerator. We made dissection by tearing open the body wall to pop out salivary glands in carnoy. After removing the carnoy, we made hydrolysis in 1.0 N HCl (preheated to 60.degree.C). We stain it in Feulgen for one to three hours in tightly stoppered vial. Free or unbound Feulgen is removed with three changes of SO2 water and following three changes of tap water. Individual larvae are placed on a separate slide in a drop of 50% acetic acid. The glands are dissected away. We sex the larvae by observing both gonadal shape. The glands are squashed with the end of a finger. We examine the slide and make photography with a microscope for species determination. The authors give the presentation of the region natural environment (relief, climate, vegetation, system of rivers). The authors have drawn two maps of species repartition based on larval breeding-sites study in the whole study area of the Cameroon. The first map includes the repartition during dry season and the second one the repartition during rainy season. The cytotaxonomic identifications made in the cameroonian zone have indicated that S. damnosum s.s. and S. sirbanum are the observed it in its breeding orizontal site, but it exhibits the same habitats as S. damnosum s.s. and S. sirbanum with the particularly to be associated with strong stormy zones or falls. It's vector potential in the onchocerciasis transmission remains to be ascertained. S. squamosum which is a forest species, transmitting forest onchocerciasis, invaded the North-East of our zone in rainy season. Its function as a potential vector of savanna onchocerchiasis remains to be ascertained. S. yahense is found in the South-West part of the zone under study, where it is associated with small forest rivers. This zone corresponds to the distribution of savannah onchocerciasis vectors, where endemic onchocerciasis has a strong pathogenicity. The cytotaxonomic results allow us to fix the boundaries of the cameroonian zone of the project between the 5.degree.5' and the 11.degree. north latitude. In the west, we have the Nigeria border and in the east the boundaries of Chad and Central African Republic.

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Participation in a feasibility study for onchocerciasis control in the Logone Basin area. Distribution of Simulium damnosum complex species in the Cameroonian area of the project. Cahiers ORSTOM, Entomologie Medicale et Parasitologie 25(3-4): 171-186, 1987

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