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Passive avoidance learning in bull frogs rana catesbeiana grass frogs rana pipiens and toads bufo americanus



Passive avoidance learning in bull frogs rana catesbeiana grass frogs rana pipiens and toads bufo americanus



Psychological Reports 49(3): 1003-1006



A passive operant-avoidance procedure was employed to condition 12 bullfrogs and 6 grass frogs to inhibit the righting-reflex. To avoid an electric shock of .8 mA, both species, when flipped, remained frozen rather than showing the short-latency righting-reflex; 6 toads failed to show passive-avoidance learning. The data are considered within the context of species-specific behavior and tonic immobility.

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