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Patterns of ovipositional activity in the apple leaf miner phyllonorycter ringoniella lepidoptera gracillariidae and the application of effective heat unit accumulation for estimation of the oviposition trends



Patterns of ovipositional activity in the apple leaf miner phyllonorycter ringoniella lepidoptera gracillariidae and the application of effective heat unit accumulation for estimation of the oviposition trends



Bulletin of the Fruit Tree Research Station Series C (Morioka) (11): 75-86



For detailed analysis of the population dynamics of the apple leaf miner, P. ringoniella, temporal oviposition patterns must be studied. Oviposition trends were examined under both constant and fluctuating temperature conditions. About 70-90% of the females of overwintering and summer generations mated in the early morning of the day after emergence, and began to lay eggs in the afternoon. On the day of mating only a small fraction of the eggs were laid from 1200 h to 1600 h. On the next day and thereafter eggs were mainly laid in abundance from 1600 h to 0400 h with no eggs oviposited from 0800 h to 1600 h in general. Under constant temperatures ranging 15.degree. C-25.degree. C the daily rate of oviposition showed a peak on the 1st day after mating (in the experiment, a day means from 1200 h of 1 day to 1200 h of the next day), and thereafter decreased rather progressively. The percentage of eggs oviposited on the 1st day after mating was highest at 25.degree. C, and decreased with the temperature. The duration of oviposition was prolonged at a low temperature. The daily oviposition trends observed under constant temperatures were somewhat different from those under the fluctuating temperatures, but the differences could solely be explained by the influence of the daily temperatures. In the lowest temperature tested, 10.degree. C, overwintering females laid roughly an equal number of eggs every day up to the 7th day after mating, with a progressive decrease in oviposition thereafter. Unmated females oviposited a very small number of eggs or none. If laid, initial oviposition was delayed at least till the 3rd day after emergence. For both the overwintering and summer generations, the females laid 40-50 eggs during their life, on an average, although the latter laid more eggs than the former. The mating and the day-night cycle may stimulate oviposition, and the age of the female adult and the temperature have some effects on the daily oviposition rate. The lower threshold temperature of oviposition can not be calculated directly from the present data, because the oviposition peak always appeared on the 1st day at above 15.degree. C. The cumulative oviposition curves on each days' scale varied with temperature. Cumulative oviposition curves obtained at different constant temperatures approximated one another, as was the case with the developmental curves reported previously. In order to facilitate estimation of the ovipositional trends in the field, the percentage of oviposition corresponding with the accumulated effective heat units is shown.

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Accession: 006075482

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