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Photo phosphorylation associated with synchronous turnovers of the electron transport carriers in chloroplasts

Photo phosphorylation associated with synchronous turnovers of the electron transport carriers in chloroplasts

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 682(3): 395-403

ISSN/ISBN: 0005-2728

Two saturating single-turnover flashes spaced 100 ms apart are sufficient to achieve ATP formation in isolated [spinach] chloroplast thylakoids. Two turnovers of the electron carries result in the accumulation of .apprx. 7 nmol H+/mg chlorophyll. Under the same conditions (i.e., .DELTA.GATP = 38 kJ/mol) a solitary flash is inadequate to produce ATP. The electron flux from the 3rd or any subsequent flash is coupled to ATP formation as efficiently as occurs in continuous light (i.e., ATP/2e > 1.0) and produces 0.8 molecules of ATP per coupling factor on each turnover. The yield of ATP per flash increases with declining temperature being largest near C, the lowest value tested. The number of H+ accumulated per flash is independent of temperature so the greater yields of ATP near C indicate that fewer H+ are exiting the membrane via nonproductive pathways. The yield of ATP per flash near C is largely independent of flash frequency between 1 and 30 Hz. When the formation of an electrical potential difference is prevented by adequate amounts of valinomycin and K, the accumulated effects of .apprx. 8 flashes are required before ATP formation is achieved (i.e., .apprx. 26 nmol H+/mg chlorophyll), indicating an average .DELTA.pH/flash in excess of 0.3 units. In the presence of the exchange carrier nigericin, the electrical component of the driving force for ATP formation is enhanced at the expense of the .DELTA.pH. In this case, ATP formation is efficiently coupled to electron flux only at flash frequencies rapid enough to allow a summation of the electrical field. Any processes which are prerequisites for ATP synthesis (i.e., activation of coupling factor or generation of .DELTA.p) are fulfilled by a remarkably small number of charge separations.

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Accession: 006109028

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