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Pleistocene occurrences of the european pond tortoise emys orbicularis in britain with appendix pollen analysis of a peat sample associated with emys orbicularis from east wretham norfolk england uk



Pleistocene occurrences of the european pond tortoise emys orbicularis in britain with appendix pollen analysis of a peat sample associated with emys orbicularis from east wretham norfolk england uk



Boreas (Oslo) 8(3): 359-372



E. orbicularis L. is the most northerly-breeding chelonian in the world, present in southern and central Europe, but absent from the British Isles at the present day. Mean July temperatures well in excess of 18% C appear necessary for the living species to breed successfully. In England, records of E. orbicularis are now available from the Cromerian Hoxnian, Ipswichian and Flandrian temperate stages, suggesting mean July temperatures at least 2.degree. C warmer than now. Most of the available materials is of Ipswichian (= Eemian) age, spanning most of this temperate stage and indicating generally high summer temperatures even near the end. There is only 1 English E. orbicularis of Flandrian age, dating from the climatic optimum, compared with numerous finds in southern Scandinavia, probably reflecting the prevalence of cooler and damper summers in the more oceanic northwest.

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