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Regulation of human papillomavirus type 11 enhancer and E6 promoter by activating and repressing proteins from the E2 open reading frame: functional and biochemical studies


Journal of Virology 62(8): 2994-3002
Regulation of human papillomavirus type 11 enhancer and E6 promoter by activating and repressing proteins from the E2 open reading frame: functional and biochemical studies
E2-C, a protein consisting mainly of the carboxy-terminal 45% of the human papillomavirus type 11 (HPV-11) E2 protein, was expressed from the Rous sarcoma virus long terminal repeat in mammalian cells. It competitively repressed the stimulatory action of the full-length E2 protein on the HPV-11 enhancer located in the upstream regulatory region, as assayed by the expression of a reporter gene from the simian virus 40 (SV40) early promoter in transiently transfected monkey CV-1 cells. A mutation in the initiation codon for E2-C protein eliminated repression. In the human cervical carcinoma cell line C-33A, which apparently lacks endogenous HPV DNA, and HPV-11 enhancer-SV40 promoter and the HPV-11 enhancer in its normal association with the E6 promoter had high constitutive activity. In these cells, E2 proteins had little or no stimulatory effect on the transcriptional activity of the HPV-11 enhancer-SV40 promoter. In contrast, the HPV-11 enhancer-E6 promoter was stimulated by the HPV-11 E2 protein but repressed by the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 protein, an effect due either to a quantitative difference in E2 expression levels or to a qualitative difference in the trans-activating abilities of the two E2 proteins. In this cell line, the HPV-11 E2-C protein suppressed both the constitutive activity and the HPV-11 E2 trans activation. The E2-C protein was also produced from an expression vector in Escherichia coli. The E2-C protein present in crude E. coli lysates or purified by DNA affinity chromatography associated in vitro with a specific sequence, ACCN6GGT, in filter-binding assays. Moreover, the protein generated DNase I footprints spanning this motif identical to those of bacterially expressed full-length E2 proteins. This DNA sequence motif is necessary and sufficient for E2 binding in vitro and enhancer trans activation in vivo (H. Hirochika, R. Hirochika, T. R. Broker, and L. T. Chow, Genes Dev. 2:54-67, 1988). Mutations in this sequence that abolished interactions with E2 also precluded binding to the E2-C protein. These data strongly suggest that the full-length E2 protein consists of two functional domains: the amino-terminal half for trans activation and the carboxy-terminal half of DNA binding. The mechanism by which E2-C represses E2-dependent enhancer activity most likely involves competition with E2 for binding to a common transcriptional regulatory site. Steric hindrance with the binding of other transcription factors such as TFIID may be responsible for the suppression of E2-independent constitutive activity by either the E2 or the E2-C protein.


Accession: 006288571

PMID: 2839716



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