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Reproduction and development of the pacific angel shark squatina californica off santa barbara california usa



Reproduction and development of the pacific angel shark squatina californica off santa barbara california usa



Copeia (4): 987-994



Specimens of Squatina californica were collected from commercial gill-net boats off Santa Barbara, California, from Jan.-Nov. 1983 for studies of reproduction. Sexual maturity in both males and females began between 900 and 1000 mm TL. Fecundity estimates from egg and embryo numbers ranged between 1 and 11. The number of young did not increase with increasing size of the female after maturity. Reproduction in the angel shark appears to follow an annual cycle. Embryo size from samples of pregnant females taken in eight months increased gradually for the 12 months between Aug. and July. Pupping occurred in spring and each female had an average of six pups. Growth rates ranged from 45 mm TL per month in very young embryos to 10 mm TL per month in those approaching the size at birth and the overall mean growth rate was 23 mm TL per month. Individual developmental morphology is described for five embryos ranging in size from 35.4-175 mm TL.

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