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Reproduction and early development of the ocean quahog arctica islandica in the laboratory

Reproduction and early development of the ocean quahog arctica islandica in the laboratory

Nautilus 90(2): 88-92

A. islandica normally spawns in summer in southern New England [USA]. Attempts to ripen these bivalves out of season in the laboratory produced limited success. Clams obtained from the Rhode Island fishery in late winter and kept in seawater ranging from 10.degree.-15.degree. C ripened significantly in 5 wk, but clams subjected to the same temperatures, plus supplemental feeding with cultured algae in the fall, failed to produce gametes. Ripe clams could not be induced to spawn by rapidly increasing or decreasing temperature, changing salinity, or by sperm suspension. Fertilization and the per cent development of stripped eggs to normal larvae were significantly increased when eggs were exposed to dilute ammonium hydroxide before fertilization was attempted. The eggs developed to the veliger stage best at a temperature of about 15.degree. C. The larvae were reared to metamorphosis at 12.degree. C .+-. 2.degree. C. Early straight-hinge stages have an unusually long hinge line. Older larvae have low-profile umbones that barely rise above the hinge line; consequently, the larval outline is always round. Larvae metamorphoze most commonly at a length of 190-200.mu. The color throughout larval development ranges from colorless to a pale yellow.

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