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Reproduction in 3 species of inter tidal barnacles from central california usa

Reproduction in 3 species of inter tidal barnacles from central california usa

Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole) 154(2): 262-281

The reproductive cycles and brood production of Chthamalus fissus, Balanus glandula and Tetraclita squamosa from central California [USA] are compared. C. fissus produces about 16 small broods from March through Oct. B. glandula produces 3-6 relatively large broods from Dec. or Jan. to May. T. squamosa incubates only about 3 intermediate-sized broods from June through Sept. Brooding in C. fissus is regulated by food availability, and yolk for only 1 brood is stored at a time. Feeding in the laboratory elicited high brooding frequencies during periods when brooding activity and food levels in the field were low; frequency of brooding was directly proportional to the amount of food. Temperature and photoperiod did not affect brooding frequencies. B. glandula rapidly stored nutrients in the ovary for about 3 broods during summer. Cold temperatures induced early brooding in the laboratory during late fall and early winter, and the population in the warm-water outfall showed delayed and lower brooding frequencies. Photoperiod did not affect brooding in B. glandula. T. squamosa in the warm-water outfall brooded 6 mo. earlier than the control population, suggesting that warm temperatures were required for reproduction. Yolk for only one brood at a time is stored in T. squamosa. Comparisons of reproductive efforts estimated as brood weight relative to body weight per year show that C. fissus has proportionally the largest brood production; B. glandula an intermediate but large amount; and T. squamosa the smallest reproductive output. Barnacle species may be grouped into 5 categories based on major patterns of reproductive timing and brood production. The reproductive effort of these 3 spp. is compared with other cirripedes.

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