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Seeds of wheat and soil infestation with cephalosporium gramineum nis. and ika. causal fungus of cephalosporium stripe of wheat



Seeds of wheat and soil infestation with cephalosporium gramineum nis. and ika. causal fungus of cephalosporium stripe of wheat



Bulletin of Hokkaido Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Stations (56): 75-82



Cephalosporium stripe of winter wheat caused by Cephalosporium gramineum Nis. and Ika. breaks out throughout Hokkaido most north of Japan. In 1985, the total area where the disease was observed were 18,747 ha. The fields damaged severely by this disease reached 3,471 ha. The authors examined the contamination of wheat seeds by C. gramineum, the process of the contaminated and the soil infestation by the contaminated seeds. C. gramineum were isolated from the seed collected in the field where the disease severely occurred. In the highest level of the seed contamination reached 24%. In this case the causal fungi survived on the surface of the wheat seeds. On the other hand inner infection of C. gramineum in the wheat seeds were confirmed because the fungi were isolated from the embryo take out from the seeds which were sufficiently rinsed by 0.1% HgCl2. In the most frequent, 20% of the embryos had contaminated by the causal fungus. The inner infection of the seeds of C. gramineum resulted from the infection in which the fungus were transported by water flow through vascular bundle from root to seed. When the seeds contaminated by the causal fungi were sown, the population of C. gramineum in the rhizophere of wheat reached 104 spores/gr of dry weight soil and the typical symptom appeared on 1.1% of wheat plants. Contagion did not occur in the field, the diseased wheats being in contact with the healthy ones. Transmission by wind did not occur either. In the threshing, healthy seeds were contaminated by the pathogen lying in the tissues which were the parts of the diseased plants. In order to prevent the spread of cephalosporium stripe in the fields which have no history of this disease, it is urgently necessary to use wheat seeds which were not infested or healthy.

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