Simultaneous multiple species testing: acute toxicity of 13 chemicals to 12 diverse freshwater amphibian, fish, and invertebrate families
Holcombe, G.W.; Phipps, G.L.; Sulaiman, A.H.; Hoffman, A.D.
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 16(6): 697-710
This test series developed methods for testing a compliment of aquatic organisms in a single test that satisfies the freshwater acute toxicity requirements for setting water quality criteria. Species tested included fathead minnows Pimephales promelas, rainbow trout Salmo gairdneri, bluegill Lepomis macrochirus, channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, goldfish Carassius auratus, white sucker Catostomus commersoni, daphnid Daphnia magna, midge Tanytarsus dissimilis, crayfish Orconectes immunis, snail Apexa hypnorum, tadpole Xenopus laevis, and leech Nephelopsis obscura. Five to nine of the preceding species were simultaneously exposed in individual tests. The chemicals tested were acrolein, aniline, dibutylfumarate, 2,4-dinitrophenol, Guthion, nicotine sulfate, phenol, rotenone, silver, Systox, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, and o-xylene. This method of simultaneously exposing aquatic organisms in separate compartments of each exposure tank allows more accurate comparisons of species sensitivity with a tested chemical. Use of this method can also produce the minimum acute data set for the derivation of a water quality criterion in less time and with a substantial cost saving for labor, materials, and chemical analyses when compared with measured concentration tests conducted separately with each individual species.