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Specificity of wheat protein reactivity in celiac disease

, : Specificity of wheat protein reactivity in celiac disease. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 18(5): 603-607

The effects of 7 wheat protein fractions on the cell-mediated immune response of celiac patients and normal individuals were compared by means of the leukocyte migration inhibition factor (LMIF) assay. Two preparations of milk protein were used as control antigens. Whereas milk protein had no effect on the release of LMIF by cells from either normal or celiac patients, wheat protein preparations stimulated 2 types of response. A nonspecific reaction was elicited from both celiac and normal cells by crude preparations such as gliadin and Frazer's fraction III (an enzymic digest of gluten), whereas purified fractions (.alpha. gliadin and .alpha.-pel) stimulated a specific response from the cells of celiac patients only. Apparently, only a pure wheat protein preparation such as .alpha. gliadin or .alpha.-pel is of value in studying immunological parameters in celiac disease.

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