EurekaMag.com logo
+ Translate

Speeds and gaits of dinosaurs


, : Speeds and gaits of dinosaurs. Palaeogeography Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology 38(3-4): 227-256

The known relationships of speed, gait and body size (derived mainly from mammals) are used to determine the gaits and theoretical maximum speeds of dinosaurs. Speed estimates are made for 62 dinosaurs (representing 51 genera) and are supplemented with information from comparative anatomy and from dinosaur trackways. Smaller bipedal dinosaurs were capable of running at speeds up to 35 or 40 km/h. The so-called ostrich dinosaurs are credited with maximum speeds < 60 km/h, and possibly as low as 35 or 40 km/h. Larger bipedal dinosaurs were probably restricted to walking or slow trotting gaits, with maximum speeds in the range 15-20 km/h. Most quadrupedal dinosuars seem to have been restricted to a walking gait. Stegosaurs and ankylosaurs may have had maximum speeds as low as 6-8 km/h. Sauropods may have attained 12-17 km/h, and some ceratopsians may have been capable of trotting at speeds up to 25 km/h. On a weight-for-weight basis the speeds of dinosaurs are generally lower than those of mammals.

Order PDF Full Text

Close
Close

Click here to order any other PDF Full Text


Accession: 006461559

DOI: 10.1016/0031-0182(82)90005-0

Download PDF Full Text: Speeds and gaits of dinosaurs


Submit PDF Full Text

No spam - Every submission is manually reviewed

Due to poor quality, we do not accept files from Researchgate

Submitted PDF Full Texts will always be free for everyone
(We only charge for PDFs that we need to acquire)

Select a PDF file:
Close
Close

Other references

Zukauskas, P.; Stonkute, E., 2006: Values and goals of Lithuanian farmers under European Union's common agricultural policy. This study examines the values and goals of farmers in Lithuania in the context of European Common Agricultural Policy. The study focuses on the first year experience of agricultural producers, which contradicts the aims of the policy and the beli...

Hunter, S.; Hassan, M.; Kamel, I.; E.B.drawy, N.; E.G.rem, A., 1982: Laparoscopy and liver biopsy in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Nineteen patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis were studied by laparoscopy and guided liver needle biopsy. 6 patients had Schistosoma mansoni ova in the faeces and 9 had S. haematobium ova in the urine. Rectal snips showed living S. mansoni...

Elhinnawy, S. I., 1964: Absorption and assimilation of P32 in the biosynthesis of phosphor ylated compounds and nucleic acids in the leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris. The absorption of the phosphate ion and its migration to the leaves of bean plants were found to be governed by the age of the leaf (the younger the leaf the higher the assimilation of P32) and the time which had elapsed since the injection of P32...

Thivolle, P.; Mathieu, L.; Mathieu, P.; Raynal, M.; Bouyoucef, S.E.; Damideaux, J.; Vignon, E.; Berger, M., 1988: Significance of solitary spine abnormalities on technetium-99m bone imaging. Solitary abnormalities located within the spine from 75 bone images with Tc-99m MDP were reviewed. For the sake of convenience, patients were grouped in three classes of age: 15-50, 51-65, and 66-90 years. In 67 cases, the diagnosis was apparent f...

Dirckx, J.H.; Doyle, C., 1981: Doctor Watson's brothers. Pharos of Alpha Omega Alpha-Honor Medical Society. Alpha Omega Alpha 44(3): 24-27

Reller, T.J., 2016: Metrics should be a complement in research, not a substitute for human judgment. Bmj 354: I4929-I4929

Milaire, J., 1976: Contribution of somite cells to the development of posterior limb buds in mice. 1. The structural changes accompanying the early genesis of the mouse hindlimb bud have been studied in serial Epon thick sections at five successive somitic stages collected during the 10th developmental day. 2. As soon as the 14-somite stage, in...

Jayasekara, R.S.; McCutcheon, H., 2006: The history of nursing services and education in Sri Lanka and the effects on developing professionalism. Understanding the evolution of nursing in a country provides perspective on the origins of current successes and dilemmas and enables the development of strategies and plans for future trends in the profession. This article explores the evolution...

Peshev, G. P., 1985: A contribution to the studies of the species of genus Isophya Br. W. (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae) in Bulgaria. II. The species of the genus Isophya in Bulgaria that are dealt with and described in this paper include I. modesta longicaudata, which is a pest of grasses and lucerne in the Dobrudja region, and I. plevnensis sp. n., from males and females taken fro...

Turlai, Iv, 1981: Investigation of the efficiency of large logging systems. Izvestiia vysshikh uchebnykh zavedenii: lesnoi zhurnal: ) 94-98