Aecial sporulation by C. quercuum f. sp. fusiforme occurred on an average of 76% of the galls in a slash pine plantation in South Carolina [USA] and on 65 and 44% in 2 loblolly pine plantations in North Carolina in 4 successive springs. Spermatial occurrence during 3 successive falls averaged 58% for the 3 plantations. Aecia appeared 10-13 days earlier on the South Carolina slash pine than on the North Carolina loblolly pine, whereas spermatial appearance was 12-14 days earlier on loblolly pine. Recurrent sporulation for 5-7 of 7 seasons was least frequent in the northernmost plantation. Most galls produced both aecia and spermatia, but some produced only one or the other during the 4 yr study. The average aecial appearance was 6-26 days before emergence of susceptible oak leaves. The major cause of gall death was natural pruning of shaded branches. Branch galls made up 73% of the dead gall population, but only 27% of the total gall population.