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Studies on dwarfing rootstocks of peach 1. survival growth yield and fruit quality of young peach trees as affected by rootstocks prunus japonica prunus tomentosa and prunus persica

Murase, S.; Suzuki, K.; Yamazaki, T.

Bulletin of the Fruit Tree Research Station Series A (Yatabe) (13): 31-50

1986


Accession: 006506584

Experiments were carried out to evaluate the possibility of producing dwarfing rootstocks in using two kinds of Nanking cherry (A) and (B) (Prunus tomentosa) and two kinds of Chinese bush cherry (A) and (B) (Prunus japonica) as dwarfing rootstocks and the cultivar Juseito (Prunus persica) as well as the cultivars R-17-9, R-26-2 and Ohatsumomo (all Prunus persica) as the standard rootstocks. Grafting was performed in 1980 in using the peach cultivars Hakuto and Hakuho. Spacing was 1.67 .times. 4 m (150 trees/10a) for the dwarfing rootstocks and 2.5 .times. 4 m or 5 .times. 4 m for the Prunus persica rootstocks. Trees were planted in December 1981 and two types of trees, Central leader type and Y type, were used for experiment and fruiting started from 1983. The results obtained up to 1984 are described below. 1. Thirty seven percent of the trees obtained in using Nanking cherry (b) as rootstock died after 5 years while the growth of the rest of the trees was unsatisfactory and less than 20% of the trees were healthy. The death and unsatisfactory growth of the trees were associated with the appearance of necrosis on the rootstock caused by apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (CLSV). 2. The growth of the new shoots of the trees grafted on Nanking cherry (A) was about 12% of that of the trees grafted on Juseito while in the case of the Chinese bush cherry (A) and (B), the mean growth of the two types of trees was 22% and that of the Y type of tree was 27% of that of the rootstock Juseito. Therefore it was considered that the degree of dwarfing was adequate. 3. The yield of the dwarfing rootstocks which was approximately 1.5ton/10a three years after planting was not significantly different from that of the standard rootstock Juseito. 4. When the dwarfing rootstocks were grafted with the cultivars Hakuho and Hakuto, the fruits become mature 7-8 days in advance. For Hakuho, the percentage of soluble solid of the fruits was about 3% higher in the dwarfed tree than in the central leader type trees of the Juseito rootstock and was 1% higher than the fruits from the Y type trees of the Juseito rootstock. For Hakuto also the percentage of soluble solid of the fruits of the dwarfed rootstock was 3% higher than for the Juseito rootstock. The fruits of Hakuto grafted on Nanking cherry (B) displayed a striking astringency. 5. On the basis of the experimental results, it was evident that the Chinese bush cherry is extremely suitable for use as a peach dwarfing rootstock. In the case of Nanking cherry, unfavorable characteristics such as the death of the trees due to necrosis, the risk of unsatisfactory growth, the astringency of the fruits as well as the low water tolerance and susceptibility to the nematode (Meloidogyne mali) described by other authors, suggest that many problems must be solved before this rootstock can be used as a dwarfing rootstock.

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