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Studies on the formation and structure of the compression wood cells induced by artificial inclination in young trees of picea glauca 2. transition from normal to compression wood revealed by a scanning electron microscopic and uv microscopic combination method



Studies on the formation and structure of the compression wood cells induced by artificial inclination in young trees of picea glauca 2. transition from normal to compression wood revealed by a scanning electron microscopic and uv microscopic combination method



Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Hokkaido University 60(4): 312-336



The transition from normal to compression wood was studied by a SEM-UVM [scanning electron microscopy-UV microscopy] combination method divised for the present study, by which features of the inner surfaces and those found in the cross section of the same cells along a radial file can be shown. Matched specimens for SEM and UVM are prepared in the following manner. A small piece of a sample is dehydrated and embedded in methacrylate resin mixture and a thin section is cut for the UVM observation with the remainder of the embedded specimen cut out from the resin block attached to the top of a slender alminium stub. A radial surface of the specimen is finished on an ultramicrotome to expose the inner surfaces of cells in a radial file adjusting the angle of the specimen following repeated inspections under a metallurgical microscope. A small tangentially flat piece with the finished surface is cut from the specimen to give a new radial surface, the latter is also finished in the same manner. These pieces are soaked in acetone or xylene to remove the resin and dried in room conditions. THe general pattern of the transition is not different among the seasons and sampling positions. The transition occurs in the following order. Disappearance of the S 3 layer; the transition layer between the S 2 and S 3 was rarely observed between the cells with and without the apparent S 3 layer. The hesitative disappearance can occur in latewood. Decrease in the thickness of the S 2 layer was followed by the appearance of unusual UV-absorption in the inner region of the S 2 layer, which is found at the bottom of the change in the cell wall thickness. The unusual UV-absorption spreads outwards and finally the outer region of the S 2 layer showed strongest UV-absorption. An increase in the strength of UV-absorption, the cell wall thickness and the roundness of the outline, was followed by the formation of spiral grooves. UV-absorption seems to increase rapidly and the increase in the degree of the development of the grooves is rather variable. Cell wall thickness and roundness seem to increase in parallel and gradually up to the appearance of intercellular spaces. From this and other evidence, the perception site of the stimulus for each characteristic feature of a compression wood cell was inferred and the mechanism of the perception was discussed in comparison with that in herbaceous plants.

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Studies on the formation and structure of the compression wood cells induced by artificial inclination in young trees of Picea glauca. II. Transition from normal to compression wood revealed by a SEM-UVM combination method. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Hokkaido University = Hokkaido Daigaku Nogaku bu kiyo 60(6): 312-335, 1982

Studies on the formation and structure of the compression wood cells induced by artificial inclination in young trees of Picea glauca. III. Light microscopic observation on the compression wood cells formed under five different angular displacements. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Hokkaido University = Hokkaido Daigaku Nogaku bu kiyo 60(6): 337-351, 1982

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