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Studies on the morphology and systematics of primitive lepidoptera insecta



Studies on the morphology and systematics of primitive lepidoptera insecta



Steenstrupia 10(5): 141-191



The monophyly and sistergroup relationship of the Lepidoptera are discussed and lepidopteran groundplan characters reviewed. Traits (21) are identified as probable autapomorphies of the superorder Amphiesmenoptera (i.e., they are synapomorphies of the Trichoptera and the Lepidoptera); 26 traits are identified as probable autoapomorphies of the Lepidoptera. The primary evolutionary lineages in the Lepidoptera are reviewed. Four suborders are recognized: Zeugloptera (Micropterigidae only), Aglossata (Agathiphagidae only), Heterobathmiina (Heterobathmiidae only) and Glossata. Four glossatan infraorders are recognized: Dacnonypha (Eriocraniidae + ? Lophocoronidae + ? Acanthopteroctetidae), Neopseustina (Neopseustidae only), Exoporia (Mnesarchaeoidea + Hepialoidea) and Heteroneura; the last 2 mentioned constitute the monophyletic Neolepidoptera, and the Neopseustina + Neolepidoptera constitute the monophyletic Myoglossata Arguments for and against the monophyly of the Heteroneura are presented. The phylogenetic relationships between the lepidopteran suborders are suggested to be Zeugloptera + (Aglossata + (Heterobathmiina + Glossata)), but alternative phylogenies such as Aglossata + (Zeugloptera + (Heterobathmiinae + Glossata)) or Zeugloptera + ((Aglossata + Hetereobathmiina) + Glossata) cannot be ruled out. Friese's (1970) Gymnocera/Angiocera theory of the primary lepidopteran dichotomy is examined in some detail and rejected. The genera of the non-neolepidopteran moth families are listed and representative members of these families illustrated in color.

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Accession: 006519454

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