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Subacute and chronic myelo monocytic leukemia in children juvenile chronic myelo monocytic leukemia clinical and hematologic observations and identification of prognostic factors

Subacute and chronic myelo monocytic leukemia in children juvenile chronic myelo monocytic leukemia clinical and hematologic observations and identification of prognostic factors

Cancer 54(4): 675-686

The clinical and hematologic characteristics of 38 children with subacute and chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (S and CMMOL) are described, and the prognostic significance of these characteristics as recorded at diagnosis is reported. The common and distinctive feature of these children was the excessive proliferation of cells of neutrophilic and monocytic series. The decrease predominated in younger children, 95% were younger than 4 yr, and boys were more affected than girls (22/16). The onset of the disease was heralded most often by acute or subacute symptoms. Splenomegaly was the most common physical finding at diagnosis. Leukocytosis was usually under 100 .times. 109/l. Monocytosis and granulocytosis were often associated with normoblastosis, and, in some cases, with moderate blastosis (.ltoreq. 30%). Severe anemia and marked thrombocytopenia were found in about 1/3 of patients, increased fetal Hb levels in 53%, and increased .gamma.-globulin levels in 50% of cases. The Philadelphia chromosome was absent in all blood and marrow cell karyotypes. Thirty-three of 38 patients were treated with moderate or intensive chemotherapy; treatment never resulted in a complete remission. Terminal acute leukemia occurred in 11 cases. Of the 38 patients, 29 have died (median survival time, 16 mo.). Initial characteristics predicting a short survival included: older age (.gtoreq. 2 yr), hepatomegaly, thrombocytopenia, high counts of blasts and normoblasts in peripheral blood. When survival was plotted on a semilogarithmic scale, a change in death rate was evident at the 2nd yr of survival, suggesting that there may be 2 subgroups of patients with myelomonocytic picture, with different rates of mortality. A stepwise discriminant-function analysis was performed in an attempt to distinguish between those children who lived .ltoreq. 2 yr and those who lived longer. Nearly all patients could be classified as a short-survivor or longer-survivor on the basis of age and platelet, blast and normoblast counts in peripheral blood. This discriminant function may be used for the estimation of prognosis and, accordingly, for the selection of the appropriate therapy of new cases.

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Accession: 006533028

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