Sunflower helianthus annuus competition in wheat triticum aestivum
Gillespie, G.R.; Miller, S.D.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science 64(1): 105-112
ISSN/ISBN: 0008-4220 Accession: 006541873
Sunflower is grown in rotation with wheat in the upper midwest of the USA. Volunteer sunflower is often a problem in wheat planted the year following sunflower. Wheat yields as influenced by wheat seeding date and sunflower density, duration of sunflower competition and rate of sunflower control were determined in the field. Season-1 long sunflower competition at densities of 3, 9 and 23 plants/m2 reduced yield of the following wheat crop by an average of 11, 19 and 33%, respectively, averaged over seeding date and location. Sunflower was more competitive with wheat seeded in late than in early May, particularly at the lower sunflower densities. Wheat yield was reduced 22% when 24 sunflower plants/m2 were allowed to compete until the wheat flag-leaf stage. Wheat yields obtained were similar when volunteer sunflower was controlled by postemergence MCPA [[(4-chloro-o-tolyl)oxy] acetic acid], bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile), or bromoxynil plus MCPA despite the slower rate of control with MCPA compared to bromoxynil or bromoxynil plus MCPA. Wheat following sunflower should be planted early and sunflower densities of 9 plants 1 m2 or higher should be removed before the flag-leaf stage to prevent yield reductions.