EurekaMag.com logo
+ Site Statistics
References:
48,252,460
Abstracts:
22,798,453
+ Resolve Accession
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
EurekaMag Most Shared ContentMost Shared
EurekaMag PDF Full Text ContentPDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full TextRequest PDF Full Text
Submit PDF Full TextSubmit PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter
Follow on Google+Follow on Google+
Follow on LinkedInFollow on LinkedIn

+ Translate

Systematics and phylogeny of hipparion neohipparion nannippus and cormohipparion mammalia equidae from the miocene and pliocene of the new world


, : Systematics and phylogeny of hipparion neohipparion nannippus and cormohipparion mammalia equidae from the miocene and pliocene of the new world. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 179(1): 1-195

Hipparions are a polyphyletic assemblage of 3-toed horses that lived during the Miocene and Pliocene in the Old and New worlds. Four hipparion genera are recognized from Central and North America, they are: Hipparion s.s. Neohipparion, Nannippus and Cormohipparion. Of the 41 previously named species of New World hipparions, 15 are referred to the existing genera and the remaining 26 spp. names are considered to be either junior synonyms, incertae sedis, nomina nuda or nomina dubia. One new species, H. shirleyi, is described from the late Barstovian of the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain [USA]. The systematics of New World hipparions is presented in a scheme that includes an integration of quantitative and qualitative dental and cranial characters. Statistical analyses of crania and dentitions provide determinations of the amount of character variation for North American hipparions. The hipparion from Mt. Leberon in southern France, H. prostylum de Christol, 1832, is the genotypic species of Hipparion s.s. In the New World, Hipparion s.s. is represented by 3 spp.: H. shirleyi, H. tohonense (Merriam), 1916a and H. forcei Richey, 1948, collectively known from the late Barstovian to the early Hemphillian of North America. Six species comprise the genus Neohipparion: N. coloradense (Osborn), 1918, N. affine (Leidy), 1869, N. trampasense (Edwards), 1982, N. leptode Merriam, 1915a, N. eurystyle (Cope), 1893 and N. gidleyi Merriam, 1915a, collectively known from the Clarendonian through late Hemphillian of Central and North America. Four species comprise the genus Nannippus: N. minor (Sellards), 1916, N. ingenuus (Leidy), 1885, N. beckensis Dalquest and Donovan, 1973 and N. peninsulatus (Cope), 1885, collectively known from the Clarendonian through late Blancan of Central and North America. In the New World, the genus Cormohipparion consists of 3 spp., C. goorisi MacFadden and Skinner, 1981, C. sphenodus (Cope), 1889 and C. occidentale (Leidy), 1856, collectively known from the early Barstovian through early Hemphillian of North America. Hipparions are closely related to, or arose from, at least 2 separate taxa within the merychippine horse complex. The earliest North American hipparion, C. goorisi, is known from the 15-million-year old early Barstovian Gulf Coastal Plain of Texas. The peak of hipparian diversity in North America occurred about 12-8 1/2 million years ago during the height of the Clarendonian chronofauna. Hipparion diversity dropped during the Hemphillian. Only the genus Nannippus is known from the Blancan. Some previous workers state that all Old World hipparions were monophyletically descended from the oldest Old World species H. primigenium. Based on similar hipparion facial morphotypes represented in both the Old and New worlds, it is possible that there were at least 2 hipparion dispersal events across Beringia, resulting in a polyphyletic assemblage in the Old World.

(PDF 0-2 workdays service)

Order PDF Full Text

Close
Close

Click here to order any other PDF Full Text


Accession: 006574496

PDF Full Text: Submit


Submit PDF Full Text

No spam - Every submission is manually reviewed

Due to poor quality, we do not accept files from Researchgate

Submitted PDF Full Texts will always be free for everyone
(We only charge for PDFs that we need to acquire)

Select a PDF file:
Close
Close

Other references

Enos P., 1988: Evolution of pore space in the poza rica trend mid cretaceous mexico. The Poza Rica trend of the Tampico embayment, Mexico, will ultimately produce more than 2.3 .times. 109 barrels of oil from Mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) basin-margin deposits. Bioclastic grainstone, packstone, and wackestone are interbedded...

Telford S.R.Jr, 1986: Fallisia parasites haemosporidia plasmodiidae from the flying lizard draco maculatus agamidae in thailand. Plasmodium (Fallisia) siamense n. sp. was described from the flying lizard Draco maculatus (Agamidae) collected near Bangkok, Thailand. Parasitic in thrombocytes, it produces 18-64 merozoites in schizonts that are larger than the usually oval game...

Chisholm, A. H., 1936: Whistlers in the Mallee. Emu, 35: 321-323

Petrache, Horia I.; Kimchi, Itamar; Harries, Daniel; Tristram Nagle, Stephanie; Podgornik, Rudi; Parsegian, V. Adrian, 2004: Forces measured between neutral lipid bilayers swollen by monovalent salt. As though to remind us how poorly understood are the simplest ion-membrane interactions, neutral lipid bilayers swell with added salt, though salt-driven swelling cannot be explained by simple electrostatics. For phosphatidylcholines with various...

Maynard F.M., 1986: Immobilization hypercalcemia following spinal cord injury. Based on the author's experience with more than 20 cases of immobilization hypercalcemia following spinal cord injury, current concepts of this condition are presented. Symptoms may be mild or severe: laboratory findings are essential for dif...

Mateen, F. J.; Boes, C. J.; Kumar, N., 2007: Unilateral headache and hypoglossal nerve palsy: a report of three cases. Ipsilateral headache associated with hypoglossal nerve palsy is uncommon and is usually reported to be secondary to internal carotid artery dissection. Herein, we report three idiopathic cases of berign ipsilateral headache with hypoglossal nerve...

Anonymous, 2012: Case-matched analysis comparing outcomes of revisional versus primary laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) is one of the most common approaches used to revise post-bariatric patients with inadequate weight loss or significant weight regain. Previous studies have analyzed the outcomes of open revisional RYGB...

Carlos Arias; Juan Carlos Molina; Norman E. Spear, 2009: Ethanol-mediated aversive learning as a function of locomotor activity in a novel environment in infant Sprague-Dawley rats. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 92(4): 621-628

Cockshull, K; Langton, A., 1980: Some new ideas about bud formation and the breeding of natural-season chrysanthemums. Chrysanthemum 36(4): 189-194

Cao, Nathanel; Le Pechon, Timothee; Zaragueeta-Bagils, Rene, 2008: Does minimizing homoplasy really maximize homology? MaHo; a method for evaluating homology among most parsimonious trees. Parsimony analysis aims at finding the tree that best fits hypotheses of homology. However, parsimony does not directly maximize homology, but minimizes homoplasy. When a parsimony analysis results in more than a single most-parsimonious tree (MPT...